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Glycemic Index

This listing of foods is from the July 2002 issue of  the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. It is the most complete listing available and includes a number of ethnic and international  foods. If you are a patient, welcome! I did this for you. See the index below to easily locate foods.

The glycemic index (GI) is  system for measuring how fast a carbohydrate triggers a rise in blood sugar. The higher the number, the greater the blood sugar response.  A GI is 70 or more is high, a GI is 56 to 69 is considered medium, and a GI of 55 or less is low.

Some food such as rice and carrots have a large range of GI values. This variation is caused by inherent botanical differences as well as preparation methods. There are no GI values given for meat, poultry, fish, avocadoes, cheese or eggs because these foods contain so little carbohydrate and are not likely to induce a significant rise in blood glucose. The only time a high glycemic index food is useful is during sporting events or to treat someone in a diabetic coma (too much insulin). Otherwise, even athletes should shoot for lower GI foods for the everyday diet, especially off-season.

A high glycemic load diet is associated with an increased risk of type II diabetes and coronary heart disease. Eating low glycemic foods is healthy because it may help prevent insulin resistance, syndrome X, the glycation of proteins (strongly associated accelerated aging), obesity, and  hypoglycemia. By avoiding a high glycemic load foods aging may be slowed and chronic disease averted. The popular diabetes diets also follow a low glycemic approach. If you have diabetes work with your doctor if you plan to begin eating low glycemic index food because your insulin dose may need to be lowered.

How to read the table
The GI index number indicates how fast a given food will cause a rise in blood sugar. Glucose is used as the benchmark or reference food and is given an arbitrary value of 100. The glycemic load (GL) is the product of the amount of available carbohydrate in the given food and the GI number of that food. Thus, the GL number gives you a good idea of the actual glycemic effect of realistic portion sizes. Each unit of dietary glycemic load represents the equivalent of 1 g carbohydrate from white bread or pure glucose. The lower the GL number the better for disease prevention

INDEX

BAKERY PRODUCTS
BEVERAGES
BREADS
BREAKFAST CEREALS AND RELATED PRODUCTS
BREAKFAST BARS
CEREAL GRAINS
COOKIES
CRACKERS
DAIRY PRODUCTS AND ALTERNATIVES
FRUIT AND FRUIT PRODUCTS
INFANT FORMULA AND WEANING FOODS
LEGUMES AND NUTS
MEAL REPLACEMENT PRODUCTS
MIXED MEALS AND CONVENIENCE FOODS
NUTRITIONAL SUPPORT PRODUCTS
PASTA AND NOODLES
SNACK FOODS AND CONFECTIONARY
NUTS
SPORTS BARS
SOUPS
SUGARS AND SUGAR ALCOHOLS
VEGETABLES
INDIGENOUS OR TRADITIONAL FOODS

SOURCE: Foster-Powell K. International table of glycemic index and glycemic load values: 2002.Am J Clin Nutr. 2002 Jul;76(1):5-56.

Number  Food Item GI number Serving size (g) GL
BAKERY PRODUCTS
Cakes
1 Angel food cake  67 50 19
2 Banana cake, made with sugar 47±8 80 18
3 Banana cake, made without sugar 55±10 80 16
4 Chocolate cake made from packet mix with chocolate frosting (Betty Crocker, General Mills) 38±3 111 20
Pound cake (Sara Lee Canada, Bramalea, Canada) 54 53 15
Sponge cake, plain 46±6 63 17
Vanilla cake made from packet mix with vanilla frosting (Betty Crocker, USA) 42±4 111 24
Croissant (Food City, Toronto, Canada) 67 57 17
Crumpet (Dempster's Corporate Foods Ltd., Etobicoke, Canada) 69 50 13
Doughnut, cake type (Loblaw's, Canada) 76 47 17
Flan cake (Weston's Bakery, Toronto, Canada) 65 70 31
Muffins
Apple, made with sugar 44±6 60 13
Apple, made without sugar 48±10 60 9
Apricot, coconut and honey, made from packet mix (Defiance Milling Co., Australia) 60±4 50 16
Bran (Culinar Inc., Grandma Martin's Muffins, Aurora, Canada) 60 57 15
Blueberry (Culinar Inc., Canada) 59 57 17
Carrot (Culinar Inc., Canada) 62 57 20
Corn muffin, low-amylose 102 57 30
Corn muffin, high-amylose 49 NA
Oatmeal, muffin, made from mix (Quaker Oats Co. of Canada, Peterborough, Canada) 69 50 24
Pancakes, buckwheat, gluten-free, made from packet mix (Orgran Natural Foods, 102±11 77 22
Pastry 59±6 57 15
Scones, plain, made from packet mix (Defiance Milling Co., Australia) 92±8 25 7
Waffles, Aunt Jemima (Quaker Oats Co. of Canada) 76 35 10
BEVERAGES   GI Serving
Coca Cola ®  
Coca Cola®, soft drink (Coca Cola Amatil, Sydney, NSW, Australia) 53±7 250 14
Coca Cola®, soft drink/soda (Coca Cola Bottling Company, Atlanta, GA, USA) 63 250 16
mean of two types 58±5
Fanta®, orange soft drink (Coca Cola Amatil, Australia) 68±6 250 23
Smoothie, raspberry (Con Agra Inc., Omaha, NE, USA) 33±9 250 14
Juices
Apple juice
 Apple juice, unsweetened 40
 Apple juice, unsweetened (Allens, Toronto, Canada) 41
 mean of three studies 40±1 250 12
 Cranberry juice cocktail (Ocean Spray® Inc., Lakeville-Middleboro, MA, USA) 68±3 250 24
 Cranberry juice drink, Ocean Spray® (Gerber Ltd., Bridgewater, Somerset, UK) 56±4 250 16
 Grapefruit juice, unsweetened (Sunpac, Toronto, Canada) 48 250 11
 Orange juice   
 Orange Juice (Canada) 46±6
 Orange juice, unsweetened, reconstituted (Quelch®, Berri Ltd., Carlton, Vic, Australia) 53±6
 mean of two studies 50±4 250 13
 Pineapple juice, unsweetened (Dole Packaged Foods, Toronto, Canada) 46 250 16
Tomato juice, canned, no added sugar (Berri Ltd., Berri, SA, Australia)6 38±4 250 4
Sports drinks
Gatorade® (Spring Valley Beverages Pty Ltd., Cheltenham, Vic, Australia) 78±13 250 12
Drinks made from drinking mix powders
Complete Hot Chocolate mix made with hot water (Nestlé, Australia) 51±3 250 11
Malted milk powder in full-fat cow's milk (Nestlé, Australia) 45±3 250 12
Milo™ (chocolate nutrient-fortified drink powder)
Milo™ (Nestlé, Australia) dissolved in water 55±3 250 9
Milo™ (Nestlé, Auckland, New Zealand) dissolved in water 52±5 250 9
mean of two studies 54±2
Milo™ (Nestlé, Australia) dissolved in full-fat cow's milk 35±2 250 9
Milo™ (Nestlé, New Zealand) dissolved in full-fat cow's milk 36±3 250 9
mean of two studies 36±1
Nutrimeal™, meal replacement drink, Dutch Chocolate (Usana, Salt Lake City, UT, USA) 26±3 250 4
Quik™ (sweet drink powder)
Quik™, chocolate (Nestlé, Sydney, NSW, Australia), dissolved in water 53±5 250 4
Quik™, chocolate (Nestlé, Australia), dissolved in 1.5% fat milk 41±4 250 5
Quik™, strawberry (Nestlé, Australia), dissolved in water 64±8 250 5
Quik™, strawberry (Nestlé, Australia), dissolved in 1.5% fat milk 35±3 250
BREADS  
Bagel, white, frozen (Lender's Bakery, Montreal, Canada) 72 70 25
Baguette, white, plain (France) 95±15 30 15
French baguette with chocolate spread (France) 72±8 70 27
French baguette with butter and strawberry jam (France) 62±7 70 26
Pain au lait (Pasquier, France) 63±10 60 20
Bread stuffing, Paxo (Campbell Soup Co Ltd., Toronto, Canada) 74 30 16
Barley Breads
Coarse barley kernel bread, 75-80% kernels
75% kernels 27 30 5
80% scalded intact kernels (20% white wheat flour) 34 30 7
80% intact kernels (20% white wheat flour) 40 30 8
mean of three studies 34±4
Barley kernel bread, 50% kernels
50% kernels (Canada) 43 30 9
50% kibbled barley (Australia) 48 30 10
mean of two studies 46±2 30 9
Barley flour breads
100% barley flour (Canada); (rye bread composition) 67 30 9
Wholemeal barley flour (80%) bread (20% white wheat flour) (Sweden) 67 30 13
Wholemeal barley bread, flat, thin, soft 50 30 7
(50% regular barley flour, 50% high-fibre barley flour) (Sweden)
Wholemeal barley bread, flat, thin, soft 43 30 5
(20% regular barley flour, 80% high-fibre barley flour) (Sweden)
Wholemeal barley flour (80%) and white wheat flour (20%) breads -
fermented or with added organic acids or salts (Sweden)
Wholemeal barley flour bread (used as reference for the 5 breads below) 70 30 14
Wholemeal barley flour bread with sourdough (lactic acid) 53 30 10
Wholemeal barley flour bread with lactic acid 66 30 12
Wholemeal barley flour bread with calcium lactate 59 30 12
Wholemeal barley flour bread with sodium propionate5 65 30 13
Wholemeal barley flour bread with higher dose sodium propionate 57 30 11
Buckwheat bread
Buckwheat bread, 50% dehusked buckwheat groats and 50% white wheat flour (Sweden) 47 30 10
Fruit Breads
Continental fruit loaf, wheat bread with dried fruit (Australia) 47±6 30 7
Happiness™ (cinnamon, raisin, pecan bread) (Natural Ovens, Mannitowoc, WI, USA) 63±5 30 9
Muesli bread, made from packet mix in bread making machine (Con Agra Inc., USA) 54±6 30 7
Hamburger bun (Loblaw's, Toronto, Canada) 61 30 9
Kaiser rolls (Loblaw's, Canada) 73 30 12
Melba toast, Old London (Best Foods Canada Inc., Etobicoke, Canada) 70 30 16
Gluten-free bread
Gluten-free white bread, unsliced (gluten-free wheat starch) (UK) 71 30 11
Gluten-free white bread, sliced (gluten-free wheat starch) (UK) 80 30 12
mean of two studies 76±5 30 11
Gluten-free fiber-enriched, unsliced (gluten-free wheat starch, soya bran) (UK) 69 30 9
Gluten-free fiber-enriched, sliced (gluten-free wheat starch, soya bran) (UK) 76 30 10
mean of two studies 73±4 30 9
Oat Bread
Coarse oat kernel bread, 80% intact oat kernels and 20% white wheat flour (Sweden) 65 30 12
Oat bran bread
50% oat bran (Australia) 44 30 8
45% oat bran and 50% wheat flour (Sweden) 50 30 9
mean of two studies 47±3 30 9
Rice bread
Rice bread, low-amylose Calrose rice (Pav's Allergy Bakery, Ingleburn, NSW, Australia) 72±9 30 8
Rice bread, high-amylose Doongara rice (Pav's Allergy Bakery, Australia) 61±9 30 7
Rye Bread
Rye kernel (pumpernickel) bread
Coarse rye kernel bread, 80% intact kernels and 20% white wheat flour (Sweden) 41 30 5
Rye kernel bread (Pumpernickel) (Canada) 41 30 5
Wholegrain pumpernickel (Holtzheuser Brothers Ltd., Toronto, Canada) 46 30 5
Rye kernel bread, Pumpernickel (80% kernels) (Canada) 55 30 7
Cocktail, sliced (Kasselar Food Products, Toronto, Canada) 55 30 7
Cocktail, sliced (Kasselar Food Products, Canada) 62 30 8
mean of six studies 50±4 30 6
Wholemeal rye bread
Wholemeal rye bread (Canada) 41
Wholemeal rye bread (Canada) 62
Wholemeal rye bread (Canada) 63
Wholemeal rye bread (Canada) 66
mean of four studies 58±6 30 8
Specialty rye breads
Blackbread, Riga (Berzin's Specialty Bakery, Sydney, NSW, Australia) 76±14 30 10
Klosterbrot wholemeal rye bread (Dimpflmeier Bakery Ltd., Canada) 67 30 9
Light rye (Silverstein's Bakery, Toronto, Canada) 68 30 10
Linseed rye (Rudolph's Specialty Bakery Ltd., Toronto, Canada) 55 30 7
Sourdough rye (Canada) 57
Sourdough rye  (Australia) 48
mean of two studies 53±5 30 6
Volkornbrot, wholemeal rye bread (Dimpflmeier Bakery Ltd., Canada) 56 30 7
Wheat Breads
Coarse wheat kernel bread, 80% intact kernels and 20% white wheat flour (Sweden) 52 30 10
Cracked wheat kernel (bulgur) bread
50% cracked wheat kernel (Canada) 58 30 12
75% cracked wheat kernels (Canada) 48 30 10
mean of two studies 53±3 30 11
Spelt wheat breads
White spelt wheat bread (Slovenia) 74 30 17
Wholemeal spelt wheat bread (Slovenia) 63 30 12
Scalded spelt wheat kernel bread (Slovenia) 67 30 15
Spelt multigrain bread® (Pav's bakery, Australia) 54±10 30 7
White wheat flour bread
White flour (Canada) 69±5 30 10
White flour  (USA) 70 30 10
White flour, Sunblest™ (Tip Top Bakeries, Australia) 70 30 10
White flour (Dempster's Corporate Foods Ltd., Canada) 71 30 10
White flour  (South Africa) 71±7 30 9
White flour (Canada) 71 30 10
mean of six studies 70±0 30 10
White wheat flour bread, hard, toasted (Italian) 73 30 11
Wonder™, enriched white bread (Interstate Brands Companies, Kansas City, MO, USA) 71±9
Wonder™, enriched white bread (Interstate Brands Companies, USA) 72±4
Wonder™, enriched white bread (Interstate Brands Companies, USA) 77±3
mean of three studies 73±2 30 10
mean of two studies 68±1 30 9
Wholemeal (whole wheat) wheat flour bread
Wholemeal flour (Canada) 52 30 6
Wholemeal flour (Canada) 64 30 8
Wholemeal flour (Canada) 65 30 8
Wholemeal flour (Canada) 67 30 8
Wholemeal flour (Canada) 67 30 8
Wholemeal flour (Canada) 69 30 8
Wholemeal flour (Canada) 71 30 8
Wholemeal flour (Canada) 72±6 30 8
Wholemeal flour (USA) 73 30 10
Wholemeal flour (South Africa) 75±9 30 9
Specialty wheat breads
English Muffin™ bread (Natural Ovens, USA) 77±7 30 11
Healthy Choice™ Hearty 7 Grain (Con Agra Inc., USA) 55±6 30 8
Healthy Choice™ Hearty 100% Whole Grain (Con Agra Inc., USA) 62±6 30 9
Hunger Filler™, whole grain bread (Natural Ovens, USA) 59±8 30 7
Nutty Natural™, whole grain bread (Natural Ovens, USA) 59±7 30 7
Semolina Bread (Kenya) 64
Soy & Linseed bread (made from packet mix in bread maker) (Con Agra Inc., USA) 50±6 30 5
Stay Trim™, whole grain bread (Natural Ovens, USA) 70±10 30 10
Whole-wheat snack bread (Ryvita Co Ltd., Poole, Dorset, UK) 74 30 16
100% Whole Grain™ bread (Natural Ovens, USA) 51±11 30 7
White wheat flour flatbread (Sweden) 79 30 13
Unleavened Breads
Lebanese bread, white (Seda Bakery, Sydney, NSW, Australia) 75±9 30 12
Middle Eastern flatbread 97±29 30 15
Pita bread, white (Canada) 57 30 10
Wheat flour flatbread  (India) 66±9 30 10
Amaranth : wheat (25:75) composite flour flatbread (India) 66±10 30 10
Amaranth : wheat (50:50) composite flour flatbread (India) 76±20 30 11
BREAKFAST CEREALS AND RELATED PRODUCTS  
All-Bran™  (high-fiber, extruded wheat bran cereal)  
All-Bran™ (Kellogg's, Pagewood, NSW, Australia) 30 30 4
All-Bran™ (Kellogg's, Battle Creek, MI, USA) 38 30 9
All-Bran™ (Kellogg's Inc., Etobicoke, Canada) 50 30 9
All-Bran™ (Kellogg's Inc., Canada) 51±5 30 9
mean of four studies 42±5
Barley porridge  
Wholemeal barley flour porridge (100% regular barley) 68 50 (dry) 23
(flour:water = 1:3), boiled 2.5 min (Sweden)  
Wholemeal high-fibre barley flour porridge 55 50 (dry) 8
(50% regular barley flour: 50% high-fibre barley flour) (Sweden)  
Barley porridge made from steamed thin (0.5 mm) dehulled barley flakes (Sweden) 62 50 (dry) 17
Barley porridge made from steamed thick (1.0 mm) dehulled barley flakes (Sweden) 65 50 (dry) 18
Bran Buds™ (Kellogg's Inc., Canada)15 58 30 7
Bran Buds with psyllium (Kellogg's Inc., Canada) 47 30 6
Bran Chex™ (Nabisco Brands Ltd., Toronto, Canada) 58 30 11
Bran Flakes™ (Kellogg's, Australia) 74 30 13
Cheerios™ (General Mills Inc., Etobicoke, Canada)15 74 30 15
Chocapic™ (Nestlé, France) 84±9 30 21
Coco Pops™ (cocoa flavoured puffed rice)  
Coco Pops™ (Kellogg's, Australia) 77±8
Coco Pops™ (Kellogg's, Australia) 77±3
mean of two studies 77 30 20
Corn Bran™ (Quaker Oats Co. of Canada, Peterborough, Canada)15 75 30 15
Corn Chex™ (Nabisco Brands Ltd., Canada)15 83 30 21
Cornflakes™   
Cornflakes™ (Kellogg's, Auckland, New Zealand) 72±16 30 18
Cornflakes™ (Kellogg's, Australia) 77 30 20
Cornflakes™ (Kellogg's Inc., Canada) 80±6 30 21
Cornflakes™ (Kellogg's Inc., Canada) 86 30 22
Cornflakes™ (Kellogg's, USA)5 92 30 24
mean of five studies 81±3 30 21
Cornflakes, high-fiber (Presidents Choice, Sunfresh Ltd., Toronto, Canada) 74 30 17
Cornflakes, Crunchy Nut™ (Kellogg's, Australia) 72±4 30 17
Corn Pops™ (Kellogg's, Australia) 80±4 30 21
Cream of Wheat™ (Nabisco Brands Ltd., Canada)15 66 250 17
Cream of Wheat™, Instant (Nabisco Brands Ltd., Canada)15 74 250 22
Crispix™ (Kellogg's Inc., Canada)15 87 30 22
Energy Mix™ (Quaker, France) 80±7 30 19
Froot Loops™ (Kellogg's, Australia) 69±9 30 18
Frosties™, sugar-coated cornflakes (Kellogg's, Australia) 55 30 15
Fruitful Lite™ (Hubbards, Auckland, New Zealand) 61±20 30 12
Fruity-Bix™, berry (Sanitarium, Auckland, New Zealand) 113±10 30 25
Golden Grahams™ (General Mills Inc., Canada) 71 30 18
Golden Wheats™ (Kellogg's, Australia) 71±8 30 16
Grapenuts™   
Grapenuts™ (Post, Kraft General Foods Inc., Toronto, Canada) 67 30 13
Grapenuts™ (Kraft Foods Inc., Port Chester, NY, USA) 75±6 30 16
mean of two studies 71±4 30 15
Grapenuts™ Flakes (Post, Kraft General Foods Inc., Canada)15 80 30 17
Honey Smacks™ (Kellogg's, Australia) 71±10 30 16
Hot cereal, apple & cinnamon (Con Agra Inc., USA) 37±6 30 8
Hot cereal, unflavoured (Con Agra Inc., USA) 25±5 30 5
Just Right™ (Kellogg's, Australia) 60±15 30 13
Just Right Just Grains™ (Kellogg's, Australia) 62±11 30 14
Komplete™ (Kellogg's, Australia) 48±5 30 10
Life™ (Quaker Oats Co., Canada)15 66 30 16
Mini Wheats™, whole wheat (Kellogg's, Australia) 58±8 30 12
Mini Wheats™, blackcurrant (Kellogg's, Australia) 72±10 30 15
Muesli  
Muesli, NS  (Canada) 66±9 30 16
Alpen Muesli (Wheetabix, France) 55±10 30 10
Muesli, gluten-free (Freedom Foods, Cheltenham, Vic, Australia) with 1.5% fat milk 39±6 30 7
Muesli, Lite (Sanitarium, New Zealand) 54±12 30 10
Muesli, Natural (Sanitarium, New Zealand) 57±9 30 11
Muesli, Natural (Sanitarium, Australia) 40±6 30 8
mean of two studies 49±9 30 10
Nutrigrain™ (Kellogg's, Australia) 66±12 30 10
Oat 'n Honey Bake™ (Kellogg's, Australia) 77±11 30 13
Oat bran  
Oat bran, raw (Quaker Oats Co., Canada) 50 10 2
Oat bran, raw 59 10 3
mean of two studies 55±5 10 3
Porridge made from rolled oats  
Porridge (Uncle Toby's, Australia)13 42 250 9
Porridge (Canada) 49±8 250 11
Traditional porridge oats (Lowan Whole Foods, Box Hill, Vic, Australia) 51±8 250 11
Porridge (Hubbards, New Zealand) 58±9 250 12
Porridge (Australia) 58±4 250 12
Porridge (Canada) 62 250 14
Porridge (Canada) 69 250 16
Porridge (USA) 75 250 17
mean of eight studies 58±4 250 13
Wholemeal oat flour porridge (flour:water = 1:3), boiled 2.5 min (Sweden) 74 50 (dry) 24
Oat porridge made from thick (1.0 mm) dehulled oat flakes (Sweden) 55 250 15
Oat porridge made from roasted thin (0.5 mm) dehulled oat flakes (Sweden) 69 250 19
Oat porridge made from roasted thick (1.0 mm) dehulled oat flakes (Sweden) 50 250 14
Oat porridge made from roasted and steamed thin (0.5 mm) dehulled oat flakes (Sweden) 80 250 22
Oat porridge made from steamed thick (1.0 mm) dehulled oat flakes (Sweden) 53 250 14
Instant Porridge  
Quick Oats (Quaker Oats Co., Canada) 65
One Minute Oats (Quaker Oats Co., Canada) 66
mean of two studies 66±1 250 17
Pop Tarts™, Double Chocolate (Kellogg's, Australia) 70±2 50 25
Pro Stars™ (General Mills Inc., Canada) 71 30 17
Puffed Wheat   
Puffed Wheat (Quaker Oats Co., Canada) 67 30 13
Puffed Wheat (Sanitarium, Australia) 80±11 30 17
mean of two studies 74±7 30 16
Raisin Bran™ (Kellogg's, USA) 61±5 30 12
Red River Cereal (Maple Leaf Mills, Toronto, Canada) 49 30 11
Rice Bran, extruded (Rice Growers Co-Operative Ltd., Leeton, NSW, Australia) 19±3 30 3
Rice Bubbles™ (puffed rice)   
Rice Bubbles™ (Kellogg's, Australia)13 81
Rice Bubbles™ (Kellogg's, Australia) 85±3
Rice Bubbles™ (Kellogg's, Australia) 95
mean of three studies 87±4 30 22
Rice Chex™ (Nabisco Brands Ltd., Canada)15 89 30 23
Rice Krispies™ (Kellogg's Inc., Canada)15 82 30 21
Shredded Wheat   30 22
Shredded Wheat (Canada) 67±10 30 13
Shredded Wheat™ (Nabisco Brands Ltd., Canada) 83 30 17
mean of two studies 75±8 30 15
Special K™  - formulation of this cereal varies in different countries
Special K™ (Kellogg's, Australia) 54±4 30 11
Special K™ (Kellogg's, USA) 69±5 30 14
Special K™ (Kellogg's, France) 84±12 30 20
Sultana Bran™ (Kellogg's, Australia) 73±13 30 14
Sustain™ (Kellogg's, Australia)13 68 30 15
Team™ (Nabisco Brands Ltd., Canada)15 82 30 17
Thank Goodness™ (Hubbards, New Zealand) 65±18 30 15
Total™ (General Mills Inc., Canada)15 76 30 17
Wheat biscuits (plain flaked wheat)
Weetabix™ (Weetabix of Canada Ltd.) 75±10 30 16
Whole wheat Goldies™ (Kellogg's, Australia) 70±4 30 14
mean of seven studies 70±2 30 13
Wheat biscuits (flaked wheat) with additional ingredients
Oat bran Weet-Bix™ (Sanitarium, Australia) 57±4 30 11
Sultana Goldies™ (Kellogg's Australia) 65±6 30 13
BREAKFAST CEREAL BARS
 CEREAL GRAINS  
 Amaranth   
Amaranth (Amaranthus esculentum) popped, 97±19 30 21
 eaten with milk and non-nutritive sweetener (India)  
 Barley    
 Pearl Barley  
 Barley, pearled (Canada) 22
 Barley (Canada) 22
 Barley, pot, boiled in salted water 20 min (Gouda's foods, Concord, Canada) 25±2
 Barley  (Canada) 27
 Barley, pearled  (Canada) 29
 mean of five studies 25±1 150 11
Barley (Hordeum vulgare) (India) 37
Barley (Hordeum vulgare) (India) 48
 mean of two groups of subjects 43±6 150 26
 Barley, cracked (Malthouth, Tunisia) 50 150 21
 Barley, rolled (Australia) 66±5 50 (dry) 25
 Buckwheat   
 Buckwheat (Canada) 49
 Buckwheat (Canada) 51±10
 Buckwheat (Canada) 63
 mean of three studies 54±4 150 16
 Buckwheat groats, hydrothermally treated, dehusked, boiled 12 min (Sweden) 45 150 13
 Corn/Maize   
 Maize (Zea Mays), flour made into chapatti (India) 59
 Maize meal porridge/gruel (Kenya) 109
 Cornmeal    
 Cornmeal, boiled in salted water 2 min (McNair Products Co. Ltd., Toronto, Canada) 68 150 9
 Cornmeal + margarine (McNair Products Co. Ltd., Canada) 69 150 9
 mean of two studies 69±1 150 9
 Sweet corn  
 Sweet corn, 'Honey & Pearl' variety (New Zealand) 37±12 150 11
 Sweet corn, on the cob, boiled 20 min (Australia) 48 150 14
 Sweet corn (Canada) 59±11 150 20
 Sweet corn (USA) 60 150 20
 Sweet corn (USA) 60 150 20
 Sweet corn (South Africa) 62±5 150 20
 mean of six studies 53±4 150 17
 Sweet corn, whole kernel, canned, diet-pack, drained (Featherweight, USA) 46 150 13
 Sweet corn, frozen, reheated in microwave   47 150 16
 (Green Giant Pillsbury Ltd., Toronto, Canada)  
 Taco shells, cornmeal-based, baked (Old El Paso Foods Co., Toronto, Canada) 68 20 8
 Couscous  
 Couscous, boiled 5 min (Near East Food Products Co., Leominster, MA, USA) 61
 Couscous, boiled 5 min (Tunisia) 69
 mean of two studies 65±4 150 23
 Millet
 Millet, boiled (Canada) 71±10 150 25
 Millet flour porridge (Kenya)  107
 Rice, white    
 Arborio, risotto rice, boiled (Sun Rice brand, Rice Growers Co-Op., Australia) 69±7 150 36
 White (Oryza sativa), boiled (India) 69±15 150 30
Rice, boiled white, type NS
 Type NS, eaten alone (France) 45 150 14
 Type NS (India) 48 150 18
 Type NS (Canada) 51 150 21
 Type NS (France) 52 150 19
 Type NS (Canada) 56 150 23
 Type NS (Pakistan) 69 150 26
 Type NS (Canada) 72±9 150 30
 Type NS, boiled in salted water (India) 72 150 27
 Type NS, boiled 13 min (Italy) 102 150 31
 Type NS (Kenya) 112 150 47
 Type NS, boiled (France) 43 150 13
 Type NS, boiled (France) 47 150 14
 mean of 12 studies 64±7 150 23
 Type NS, boiled in salted water, refrigerated 16-20h, reheated (India) 53 150 20
 Type NS, boiled 13 min, then baked 10 min (Italy) 104 150 31
 Long grain, boiled
 Long grain, boiled 5 min (Canada) 41 150 16
 Long grain, white (Uncle Bens, Auckland, New Zealand) 56±7 150 24
 Long grain, boiled 25 min (Surinam) 56±2 150 24
 Gem long grain (Dainty Food Inc., Canada) 57 150 23
 Long grain, boiled 15 min 58 150 23
 Gem long grain (Dainty Food Inc., Canada) 60 150 24
 Gem long grain (Dainty Food Inc., Canada) 60 150 24
 Long grain, white, boiled 7 min (Star brand, Gouda foods, Concord, Canada) 64±3 150 26
 mean of 10 studies 56±2 150 23
 Rice, long grain, quick-cooking varieties  
 Long grain, parboiled 10 min cooking time (Uncle Ben's, Masterfoods, Belgium) 68±6 150 25
 Long grain, parboiled, 20 min cooking time (Uncle Ben's, Masterfoods, Belgium) 75±7 150 28
 Long grain, white, pre-cooked, microwaved 2 min (Express Rice, plain, Uncle Ben's, Masterfoods 52±5 150 19
 King's Lynn, Norfolk, UK)  
 Rice, specialty rices  
 Cajun Style, Uncle Ben's® (Effem Foods Ltd., Bolton, Canada) 51 150 19
 Garden Style, Uncle Ben's® (Effem Foods Ltd., Canada) 55 150 21
 Long Grain and Wild, Uncle Ben's® (Effem Foods Ltd., Canada) 54 150 20
 Mexican Fast and Fancy, Uncle Ben's® (Effem Foods Ltd., Canada) 58 150 22
 Saskatchewan wild rice (Canada) 57 150 18
 Broken rice, white, cooked in rice cooker (Lion Foods, Bangkok, Thailand) 86±10 150 37
 Glutinous rice, white, cooked in rice cooker (Bangsue Chia Meng Rice Mill, Bangkok, Thailand) 98±7 150 31
 Jasmine rice, white long grain, cooked in rice cooker (Golden World Foods, Bangkok, Thailand) 109±10 150 46
 Rice, white low-amylose  
 Calrose, white, medium grain, boiled (Rice Growers Co-op., Australia) 83±13 150 36
 Sungold, Pelde, parboiled (Rice Growers Co-op., Australia) 87±7 150 37
 Waxy (0-2% amylose) (Rice Growers Co-op., Australia) 88±11 150 38
 Pelde, white (Rice Growers Co-op., Australia) 93±11 150 40
 White, low-amylose, boiled (Turkey) 139 150 60
 Rice, white high-amylose  
 Bangladeshi rice variety BR16 (28% amylose) 37 150 14
 Bangladeshi rice variety BR16, white, long-grain (27% amylose), boiled 17.5 min 39 150 15
 mean of two studies 38 150 15
 Doongara, white (Rice Growers Co-op., Australia) 50±6
 Doongara, white (Rice Growers Co-op., Australia) 64±9
 Doongara, white (Rice Growers Co-op., Australia) 54±7
 mean of three studies 56±4 150 22
 Koshikari (Japonica), white, short-grain, boiled 15 min then steamed 10 min (Japan) 48±8 150 18
 Basmati
 Basmati, white, boiled (Mahatma brand, Sydney,  NSW, Australia) 58±8 150 22
 Precooked basmati rice in pouch, white, reheated in microwave, Uncle Ben's Express® 57±4 150 24
 (Masterfoods. Kings Lynn, Norfolk, UK)  
 Quick cooking white basmati, cooked 10 min, Uncle Ben's Superior (Masterfoods Olen, Belgium) 60±5 150 23
 Rice, brown  
 Brown (Canada) 66±5 150 21
 Brown, steamed (USA) 50 150 16
 Brown (Oriza Sativa), boiled (South India)5 50±19 150 16
 mean of three studies 55±5 150 18
 Calrose brown (Rice Growers Co-op., Australia) 87±8 150 33
 Doongara brown, high amylose (Rice Growers Co-op., Australia) 66±7 150 24
 Pelde brown (Rice Growers Co-op., Australia) 76±6 150 29
 Parboiled, cooked 20 min, Uncle Ben's Natur-reis ® (Masterfoods Olen, Belgium) 64±7 150 23
 Sunbrown Quick™ (Rice Growers Co-op., Australia) 80±7 150 31
 Instant/puffed rice   
 Instant rice, white, boiled 1 min (Canada) 46 150 19
 Instant rice, white, cooked 6 min (Trice brand, Australia) 87 150 36
 Puffed, white, cooked 5 min, Uncle Ben's Snabbris® (Masterfoods Olen, Belgium) 74±5 150 31
 mean of three studies 69±12 150 29
 Instant doongara, white, cooked 5 min (Rice Growers Co-op., Australia) 94±7 150 35
 Parboiled rice   
 Parboiled rice (Canada) 48 150 18
 Parboiled rice (USA) 72 150 26
 Converted, white, Uncle Ben's® (Effem Foods Ltd., Canada) 45 150 16
 Converted, white, boiled 20-30 min, Uncle Ben's® (Masterfoods USA, Vernon, CA) 38 150 14
 Converted, white, long grain, boiled 20-30 min, Uncle Ben's® (Masterfoods USA) 50 150 18
  Boiled, 12 min (Denmark)6 39 150 14
 Boiled, 12 min (Denmark) 42 150 15
 Boiled, 12 min (Denmark) 43 150 16
 Boiled, 12 min (Denmark) 46 150 17
 Long grain, boiled 5 min (Canada) 38 150 14
  Long grain, boiled, 10 min (USA) 61 150 22
 Long grain, boiled 15 min (Canada) 47 150 17
 Long grain, boiled 25 min (Canada) 46 150 17
 mean of thirteen studies 47±3 150 17
  Parboiled rice, eaten as part of a traditional Indian meal (India)5 99
 Parboiled, low-amylose   
 Bangladeshi rice variety BR2, parboiled  (12% amylose) 51 150 19
 Parboiled, low-amylose, Pelde, Sungold (Rice Growers Co-op., Australia) 87±7 150 34
 Parboiled, high-amylose   
 Parboiled, high-amylose (28%), Doongara (Rice Growers Co-op., Australia) 50±6 150 19
 Bangladeshi rice variety BR16, parboiled (28% amylose) 35 150 13
 Bangladeshi rice variety BR16, traditionally parboiled (27% amylose) 32 150 12
 Bangladeshi rice variety BR16, pressure parboiled (27% amylose) 27 150 11
 Bangladeshi rice variety BR4, parboiled (27% amylose) 33 150 13
 Mean of 5 studies 35±4 150 14
 Rye, whole kernels   
 Rye, whole kernels (Canada) 29 50 (dry) 11
 Rye, whole kernels, pressure cooked (15 psi) 30 min in 2 L water (Canada) 34 50 (dry) 13
 Rye, whole kernels (Canada) 39 50 (dry) 15
 mean of three studies 34±3 50 (dry) 13
 Wheat   
 Wheat, whole kernels
 Wheat, whole kernels (Triticum aestivum) (India)11 30±9 50 (dry) 11
 Wheat, whole kernels (Canada) 42 50 (dry) 14
 Wheat, whole kernels, pressure cooked (15 psi) 30 min in 2 L water (Canada) 44 50 (dry) 14
 Wheat, whole kernels (Canada) 48 50 (dry) 16
 mean of four studies 41±3 50 (dry) 14
 Wheat, type NS(India) 90 50 (dry) 34
 Wheat, precooked kernels  
 Durum wheat, precooked, cooked 20 min (Ebly, Chateaudun, France) 52±4 50 (dry) 19
 Durum wheat, precooked, cooked 10 min (Ebly, France) 50±5 50 (dry) 17
 Durum wheat, precooked in pouch, reheated in microwave, Ebly Express (Ebly, France) 40±5 125 16
 Quick cooking (White Wings, Sydney, NSW, Australia) 54±11 150 25
 Semolina  
 Semolina, roasted at 105 °C then gelatinised with water (India) 55±9
 Semolina, steamed and gelatinised (India) 54±13
 mean of two studies 55±1 150 6
 Cracked wheat (bulgur/bourghul)
 Bulgur, boiled (Canada) 46
 Bulgur, boiled in 800 mL water 20 min (Canada) 46
 Bulgur, boiled 20 min (Canada) 46
 Bulgur, boiled 20 min (Canada) 53
 mean of four studies 48±2 150 12
COOKIES  
Arrowroot  
Arrowroot (McCormicks's, Interbare Foods, Toronto, Canada) 63 25 13
Arrowroot plus (McCormicks's, Canada) 62 25 11
Milk Arrowroot™ (Arnotts, Sydney, NSW, Australia) 69±7 25 12
mean of three studies 65±2 25 12
Barquette Abricot (LU, Ris, Orangis, France) 71±6 40 23
Bebe Dobre Rano Chocolate (Opavia/LU, Czech Republic) 57±9 50 19
Bebe Dobre Rano Honey and Hazelnuts (Opavia/LU, Czech Republic) 51±9 50 17
Bebe Jemne Susenky (Opavia/LU, Czech Republic) 67±11 25 14
Digestives
Digestives (Canada) 55
Digestives (Canada) 59±7
Digestives, Peak Freans (Nabisco Ltd., Toronto, Canada) 62
mean of three studies 59±2 25 10
Digestives, gluten-free (maize starch) (Nutricia Dietary Care Ltd., Redish, Stockport, UK) 58 25 10
Evergreen met Krenten (LU, Netherlands) 66±12 38 14
Golden Fruit (Griffin's Foods Ltd., Auckland, New Zealand) 77±25 25 13
Graham Wafers (Christie Brown & Co., Toronto, Canada) 74 25 14
Gran'Dia Banana, Oats and Honey (LU, Brazil) 28±5 30 6
Grany en-cas Abricot (LU, France) 55±6 30 9
Grany en-cas Fruits des bois (LU, France) 50±5 30 7
Grany Rush Apricot (LU, Netherlands) 62±3 30 12
Highland Oatmeal™ (Westons biscuits, Sydney, NSW, Australia) 55±8 25 10
Highland Oatcakes (Walker's Shortbread Ltd., Aberlour-on-Spey, Scotland) 57 25 8
LU P'tit Déjeuner Chocolat (LU, France) 42±5 50 14
LU P'tit Déjeuner Miel et Pépites Chocolat (LU, France) 45±5 50 16
LU P'tit Déjeuner Miel et Pépites Chocolat (LU, France) 52±3 50 18
LU P'tit Déjeuner Miel et Pépites Chocolat (LU, France) 49±8 50 18
mean of three studies 49±2 50 17
Maltmeal wafer (Griffin's Foods Ltd., New Zealand) 50±10 25 9
Morning Coffee™ (Arnotts, Australia) 79±6 25 15
Nutrigrain Fruits des bois (Kellogg's, France) 57±4 35 13
Oatmeal (Canada) 54±4 25 9
Oro (Saiwa, Italy) 61±9 40 20
Oro (Saiwa, Italy) 67±17 40 21
mean of two studies 64±3 40 20
Petit LU Normand (LU, France) 51±3 25 10
Petit LU Roussillon (LU, France) 48±4 25 9
Prince Energie+ (LU, France) 73±5 25 13
Prince fourré chocolat (LU, France) 53±5
Prince fourré chocolat (LU, France) 50±5
mean of two studies 52±2 45 16
Prince Meganana Chocolate (LU, Spain) 49±12 50 18
Prince Petit Déjeuner Vanille (LU, France and Spain) 45±6 50 16
Rich Tea (Canada) 55±4 25 10
Sablé des Flandres (LU, France) 57±10 20 8
Shortbread (Arnotts, Australia) 64±8 25 10
Shredded Wheatmeal™ (Arnotts, Australia) 62±4 25 11
Snack Right Fruit Slice (97% fat-free) (Arnott's, Australia) 45±3 25 9
Thé (LU, France) 41±7 20 6
Vanilla Wafers (Christie Brown & Co., Canada) 77 25 14
Véritable Petit Beurre (LU, France) 51±8 25 9
CRACKERS
Breton wheat crackers (Dare Foods Ltd., Kitchener, Canada) 67 25 10
Corn Thins, puffed corn cakes, gluten-free (Real Foods, St Peters, NSW, Australia) 87±10 25 18
Cream Cracker (LU Triumfo, Brazil) 65±11 25 11
High-calcium cracker (Danone, Malaysia) 52±8 25 9
Jatz™, plain salted craker biscuits (Arnotts, Australia) 55±5 25 10
Puffed Crispbread (Westons, Australia) 81±9 25 15
Puffed rice cakes
Puffed rice cakes, white (Rice Growers Co-op., Leeton, NSW, Australia) 82±11 25 17
Rice cakes, Calrose rice (low-amylose) (Rice Growers Co-op., Australia) 91±7 25 19
Rice cakes, Doongara rice (high-amylose)  (Rice Growers Co-op., Australia) 61±5 25 13
mean of three studies 78±9 25 17
Rye crispbread 
Rye crispbread (Canada) 63 25 10
Ryvita™ (Canada) 69±10 25 11
High-fiber rye crispbread (Ryvita Company Ltd., Poole, Dorset, UK) 59 25 9
Rye crispbread (Ryvita Company Ltd., UK) 63 25 11
mean of four studies 64±2 25 11
Kavli™ Norwegian Crispbread (Players Biscuits, Sydney, NSW, Australia) 71±7 25 12
Sao™, plain square crackers (Arnotts, Australia) 70±9 25 12
Stoned Wheat Thins (Christie Brown & Co., Canada) 67 25 12
Water cracker 
Water cracker (Canada) 63±9 25 11
Water cracker (Arnotts, Australia) 78±11 25 14
mean of two studies 71±8 25 13
Premium Soda Crackers (Christie Brown & Co., Canada) 74 25 12
Vita-wheat™, original, crispbread (Arnott's, Australia) 55±4 25 10
DAIRY PRODUCTS AND ALTERNATIVES
Custard
mean of three studies 38±2 100 6
Ice cream, Regular/NS
Ice cream, NS (Canada) 36±8
Ice cream (half vanilla, half chocolate) (Italy) 57
Ice cream, NS(USA) 62
Ice cream, chocolate flavored (USA) 68±15
Ice cream (half vanilla, half chocolate) (Italy) 80
mean of five studies 61±7 50 8
Ice cream, Reduced- or Low-fat
Ice cream, low-fat, vanilla, 'Light' (Peter's, Sydney, NSW, Australia) 50±8 50 3
Ice-cream, low-fat (1.2 % fat), Prestige Light rich vanilla (Norco, Lismore, NSW, Australia) 47±5 50 5
Ice-cream, low-fat (1.4% fat), Prestige Light traditional toffee (Norco, Australia) 37±4 50 5
Ice-cream, reduced-fat (7.1 % fat), Prestige golden macadamia (Norco, Australia) 39±3 50 5
Ice cream, Premium (high-fat)
Ice cream, premium, Ultra chocolate, 15% fat (Sara Lee, Gosford, NSW, Australia) 37±3 50 4
Ice cream, premium, French vanilla, 16% fat (Sara Lee, Australia) 38±3 50 3
Milk, full-fat
Full-fat (Italy) 11
Full-fat (3% fat, Skånemejerier, Malmö, Sweden)6 21
Full-fat (Italy) 24
Full-fat cow's milk, fresh (Dairy Farmers, Sydney, NSW, Australia) 31±2
Full-fat  (Canada) 34±6
Full-fat  (USA) 40
mean of five studies 27±4 250 3
Fermented cow's milk (ropy milk, långfil, 3% fat) (Arla, Gävle, Sweden) 11
Fermented cow's milk (filmjölk, 3% fat) (Skånemejerier, Malmö, Sweden) 11
mean of two foods 11
Milk, full-fat, plus bran
Full-fat + 20g wheat bran (Italy) 25
Full-fat + 20g wheat bran (Italy) 28
mean of two studies 27±2 250 3
Milk, skim (Canada) 32±5 250 4
Milk, condensed, sweetened (Nestlé, Sydney, NSW, Australia) 61±6 50 17
Milk, low-fat, chocolate, with aspartame, Lite White™ (Dairy Farmers, Australia) 24±6 250 3
Milk, low-fat, chocolate, with sugar, Lite White™ (Dairy Farmers, Australia) 34±4 250 9
Mousse, reduced-fat, prepared from commerical mousse mix with water
Butterscotch, 1.9% fat (Nestlé, Australia) 36±4 50 4
Chocolate, 2% fat (Nestlé, Australia) 31±4 50 3
Hazelnut, 2.4% fat (Nestlé, Australia) 36±4 50 4
Mango, 1.8% fat (Nestlé, Australia) 33±5 50 4
Mixed berry, 2.2% fat (Nestlé, Australia) 36±5 50 4
Strawberry, 2.3% fat (Nestlé, Australia) 32±3 50 3
mean of six foods 34±1 50 4
Pudding
instant, chocolate, made from powder and whole milk (White Wings, Sydney, NSW, Australia) 47±4 100 7
instant, vanilla, made from powder and whole milk (White Wings, Australia) 40±4 100 6
mean of two foods 44±4 100 7
Yoghurt 
Yoghurt, type NS (Canada) 36±4 200 3
Low-fat yoghurt
Low-fat, fruit, aspartame, Ski™ (Dairy Farmers, Australia) 14±4 200 2
Low-fat, fruit, sugar, Ski™ (Dairy Farmers, Australia) 33±7 200 10
Low-fat (0.9%), fruit, wild strawberry (Ski d'lite™, Dairy Farmers, Australia) 31±14 200 9
Non-fat yoghurt, sweetened with acesulfame K and Splenda
mean of five foods 24±1 200 3
Reduced-fat yoghurt
Reduced-fat, Vaalia™, apricot & mango (Pauls Ltd., Australia) 26±4 200 8
Reduced-fat, Vaalia™, french vanilla (Pauls Ltd., Australia) 26±4 200 3
Reduced-fat, Extra-Lite™, strawberry (Pauls Ltd., Australia) 28±4 200 9
mean of three foods 27±1 200 7
Yoghurt drink, reduced-fat, Vaalia™, tropical passionfruit (Pauls Ltd., Australia) 38±4 200 11
Soy-based dairy product alternatives
Soy milks (containing maltodextrin)
Soy milk, full-fat (3%), 0 mg calcium, Original (So Natural Foods, Taren Point, NSW, Australia) 44±5 250 8
Soy milk, full-fat (3%), 120 mg calcium, Calciforte (So Natural Foods, Australia) 36±4 250 6
Soy milk, reduced-fat (1.5%), 120 mg calcium, Light (So Natural Foods, Australia) 44±3 250 8
Soy milk drinks
mean of two drinks 32±2 250 7
Soy yoghurt
Soy yoghurt, peach and mango, 2% fat, sugar (So Natural Foods, Australia) 50±3 200 13
Tofu-based frozen dessert, chocolate with high-fructose (24%) corn syrup (USA) 115±14 50 10
FRUIT AND FRUIT PRODUCTS
Apples, raw
Apple, NS (Denmark) 28 120 4
Apple, Braeburn (New Zealand) 32±4 120 4
Apple, NS (Canada) 34 120 5
Apple, Golden Delicious (Canada) 39±3 120 6
Apple, NS(USA) 40 120 6
Apple, NS (Italy) 44 120 6
mean of six studies 38±2 120 6
Apple juice
Apple juice, unsweetened, reconstituted (Berrivale Orchards Ltd, Berri, SA, Australia) 39±5 250 10
Apple juice, unsweetened (USA) 40 250 12
Apple juice, unsweetened (Allens, Toronto, Canada) 41 250 12
mean of three studies 40±1 250 11
Apple, dried (Australia) 29±5 60 10
Apricots
Apricots, raw, NS (Italy) 57 120 5
Apricots, canned in light syrup (Riviera, Aliments Caneast Foods, Montreal, Canada ) 64 120 12
Apricots, dried (Australia) 30±7 60 8
Apricots, dried (Wasco foods, Montreal, Canada) 32 60 10
mean of two studies 31±1 60 9
Apricot fruit bar, pureed dried apricot filling in wholemeal pastry 50±8 50 17
(Mother Earth, Auckland, New Zealand)
Apricot fruit spread, reduced sugar (Glen Ewin Jams, Para Hills, SA, Australia) 55±7 30 7
Apricot Fruity Bitz™, vitamin and mineral enriched dried fruit snack 42±3 15 5
 (Blackmores Ltd., Balgowlah, NSW, Australia)
Banana, raw
Banana (Canada) 46 120 12
Banana (Italy) 58 120 13
Banana (Canada) 58 120 15
Banana (Canada) 62±9 120 16
Banana (South Africa) 70±5 120 16
Banana, ripe (all yellow) (USA) 51 120 13
Banana, under-ripe (Denmark) 30 120 6
Banana, slightly under-ripe (yellow with green sections) (USA) 42 120 11
Banana, over-ripe (yellow flecked with brown) (USA) 48 120 12
Banana, over-ripe (Denmark) 52 120 11
mean of 10 studies 52±4 120 12
Cranberry juice
Cranberry juice cocktail (Ocean Spray, Melbourne, Vic, Australia) 52±3 250 16
Cranberry juice cocktail (Ocean Spray Inc., Lakeville-Middleboro, MA, USA) 68±3 250 24
Cranberry juice drink, Ocean Spray® (Gerber Ltd., Bridgewater, Somerset, UK) 56±4 250 16
Custard apple, raw, flesh only (Australia) 54±2 120 10
Dates, dried (Australia) 103±21 60 42
Figs, dried, tenderised, Dessert Maid brand (Ernest Hall & Sons, Sydney, NSW, Australia) 61±6 60 16
Fruit Cocktail, canned (Delmonte Canadian Canners Ltd., Hamilton, Canada) 55 120 9
Grapefruit, raw (Canada) 25 120 3
Grapefruit juice, unsweetened (Sunpac, Toronto, Canada) 48 250 9
Grapes, raw
Grapes, NS (Canada) 43 120 7
Grapes, NS (Italy) 49 120 9
mean of two studies 46±3 120 8
Grapes, black, Waltham Cross (Australia) 59 120 11
Kiwi fruit, raw
Kiwi fruit, Hayward (New Zealand) 47±4 120 5
Kiwi fruit (Australia) 58±7 120 7
mean of two studies 53±6 120 6
Lychee, canned in syrup and drained, Narcissus brand (China) 79±8 120 16
Mango, raw
Mango (Mangifera indica) (Philippines) 41 120 8
Mango (Mangifera indica) (Australia) 51±3 120 8
Mango, ripe (Mangifera indica) (India) 60±16 120 9
mean of three studies 51±5 120 8
Mango, low-fat frozen fruit dessert, Frutia™ (Weis Frozen Foods, Toowong, Qld, Australia)  42±3 100 10
Marmalade, orange (Australia) 48±9 30 9
Oranges, raw
Oranges, NS (Denmark) 31 120 3
Oranges, NS (South Africa) 33±6 120 3
Oranges, NS (Canada) 40±3 120 4
Oranges, NS (Italy) 48 120 5
Oranges (Sunkist, Van Nuys, CA, USA) 48 120 5
Oranges NS(Canada) 51 120 6
mean of six studies 42±3 120 5
Orange juice
Orange Juice (Canada) 46±6 250 12
Orange juice, unsweetened, reconstituted concentrate, Quelch brand (Berri Ltd., Australia) 53±6 250 9
Orange juice, reconstituted from frozen concentrate (USA) 57±6 250 15
mean of three studies 52±3 250 12
Paw paw/papaya, raw
Paw paw (Carica papaya) (Australia)6 56±6 120 5
Paw paw (papaya), ripe (India)11 60±16 120 17
Papaya (Carica papaya) (Philippines)6 60 120 9
mean of three studies 59±1 120 10
Peaches
Peach, raw (Canada) 28 120 4
Peach, raw (Italy) 56 120 5
mean of two studies 42±14 120 5
Peach, canned in natural juice (Goulburn Valley, Ardmona Foods, Mooroopna, Vic, Australia) 30±4 120 3
Peach, canned in natural juice (SPC Ltd., Shepparton, Vic, Australia) 45±6 120 5
mean of two studies 38±8 120 4
Peach, canned in heavy syrup (Letona Foods, Hawthorn East, Vic, Australia) 58±11 120 9
Peach, canned in light syrup (Delmonte, Canadian Canners Ltd.) 52 120 9
Peach, canned in reduced-sugar syrup, SPC Lite (SPC Ltd., Australia) 62±9 120 11
Pears
Pear, raw, NS(Canada) 33 120 4
Pear, Winter Nellis, raw (New Zealand)6 34±4 120 4
Pear, Bartlett, raw (Canada) 41 120 3
Pear, raw, NS (Italy) 42 120 4
mean of four studies 38±2 120 4
Pear halves, canned in reduced-sugar syrup, SPC Lite (SPC Ltd., Australia) 25±6 120 4
Pear halves, canned in natural juice (SPC Ltd., Australia) 43±15 120 5
Pear, canned in pear juice, Bartlett (Delmonte, Canadian Canners Ltd.) 44 120 5
Pineapple
Pineapple, raw (Australia) 66±7 120 6
Pineapple (Ananas comosus), raw (Philippines) 51 120 8
mean of two studies 59±8 120 7
Pineapple juice, unsweetened (Dole Packaged Foods, Toronto, Canada) 46 250 15
Plums
Plum, raw, NS (Canada) 24 120 3
Plum, raw, NS (Italy) 53 120 6
mean of two studies 39±15 120 5
Prunes, pitted (Sunsweet Growers Inc., Yuba City, CA, USA) 29±4 60 10
Raisins (Canada) 64±11 60 28
Rockmelon/Cantaloupe, raw (Australia) 65±9 120 4
Strawberries, fresh, raw (Sydney, NSW, Australia) 40±7 120 1
Strawberry jam 51±10 30 10
Strawberry processed fruit bars, Real Fruit Bars (Uncle Toby's, Australia) 90±12 30 23
Sultanas 56±11 60 25
Tomato juice, no added sugar (Berri Ltd., Berri, SA, Australia) 38±4 250 4
Vitari, wild berry, non-dairy, frozen fruit dessert (Nestlé, Sydney, NSW, Australia) 59±8 100 12
Watermelon, raw (Australia) 72±13 120 4
Wild Berry Fruity Bitz™, vitamin and mineral enriched dried fruit snack 35±4 15 4
(Blackmores Ltd., Australia)
INFANT FORMULA AND WEANING FOODS
Formula
Infasoy™, soy-based, milk-free (Wyeth Nutritionals, Baulkham Hills, NSW, Australia) 55±6 100 mL 4
Karicare™ gold starter formula with omega plsu LCP oils (Nutricia, Auckland, New Zealand) 35±5 100 mL 2
Nan-1™ infant formula with iron (Nestlé, Sydney, NSW, Australia) 30±6 100 mL 2
S-26™ infant formula (Wyeth Nutritionals, Australia) 36±6 100 mL 3
Weaning Foods
Farex™ baby rice (Heinz Wattie's Ltd., Malvern, Vic, Australia) 95±13 87 6
Robinsons First Tastes from 4 months (Nutricia, Wells, UK)
Apple, apricot and banana cereal 56±8 75 7
Creamed porridge 59±8 75 5
Rice pudding 59±6 75 6
Heinz for Baby from 4 months (Heinz Wattie's Ltd., Australia)
Chicken and noodles with vegetables, strained 67±11 120 5
Sweetcorn and rice 65±13 120 10
LEGUMES AND NUTS
Baked Beans
Baked Beans, canned (Canada) 40±3
Baked Beans, canned haricot/navy beans in tomato sauce 56
(Libby, McNeill & Libby, Chatham, Canada)
mean of two studies 48±8 150 7
Beans, dried, boiled
Beans, dried, type NS(Italy) 36 150 11
Beans, dried, type NS(Italy) 20 150 6
mean of two studies 29±9 150 9
Blackeyed beans/peas (Cowpeas), boiled
Blackeyed beans (Canada) 50 150 15
Blackeyed beans (Canada) 33±4 150 10
mean of two studies 42±9 150 13
Butter Beans
Butter beans (South Africa) 28±7 150 5
Butter beans, dried, cooked 1.25 h (South Africa) 29±8 150 6
Butter beans (Canada) 36±4 150 7
mean of three studies 31±3 150 6
Butter beans, dried, boiled + 5g sucrose (South Africa) 30±2 150 6
Butter beans, dried, boiled + 10g sucrose (South Africa) 31±2 150 6
Butter beans, dried, boiled + 15g sucrose (South Africa) 54±4 150 11
Chickpeas (Garbanzo beans, Bengal gram), boiled 
Chickpeas (Cicer arietinum Linn), dried, soaked, boiled 35 min (Philippines) 10 150 3
Chickpeas, dried, boiled (Canada) 31 150 9
Chickpeas (Canada) 33 150 10
Chickpeas (Canada) 36±5 150 11
mean of four studies 28±6 150 8
Chickpeas, canned in brine (Lancia-Bravo Foods Ltd., Toronto, Canada) 42 150 9
Chickpeas, curry, canned (Canasia Foods Ltd., Scarborough, Canada) 41 150 7
Haricot/Navy beans
Haricot/Navy beans, pressure cooked at 15 psi for 25 min (King Grains, Toronto, Canada) 29 150 9
Haricot/Navy beans, dried, boiled (Canada) 30 150 9
Haricot/Navy beans, boiled (Canada) 31±6 150 9
Haricot/Navy beans (King Grains, Canada) 39 150 12
Haricot/Navy beans, pressure cooked at15 psi for 25 min (King Grains, Canada) 59 150 19
mean of five studies 38±6 150 12
Kidney Beans
Kidney/white bean (Phaseolus vulgaris Linn), soaked, boiled 17 min (Philippines) 13 150 3
Kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) (India) 19 150 5
Kidney beans (USA) 23 150 6
Kidney beans, dried, boiled (France) 23±1 150 6
Kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), red, soaked 20 min, boiled 70 min (Sweden) 25 150 6
Kidney beans (Canada) 29±8 150 7
Kidney beans, dried, boiled (Canada) 42 150 10
Kidney beans (Canada) 46 150 11
mean of eight studies 28±4 150 7
Kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) - autoclaved 34 150 8
Kidney beans, canned (Lancia-Bravo Foods Ltd., Canada) 52 150 9
Kidney beans, dried, soaked 12 h, stored moist 24 h, steamed 1 h (India) 70±11 150 17
Black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris Linn), soaked overnight, cooked 45 min (Philippines) 20 150 5
Lentils, type NS
Lentils, type NS (USA) 28
Lentils, type NS (Canada) 29±3
mean of two studies 29±1 150 5
Lentils, green
Lentils, green, dried, boiled (Canada) 22 150 4
Lentils, green, dried, boiled (France) 30±15 150 6
Lentils, green, dried, boiled (Australia) 37±3 150 5
mean of three studies 30±4 150 5
Lentils, green, canned in brine (Lancia-Bravo Foods Ltd., Canada) 52 150 9
Lentils, red
Lentils, red, dried, boiled (Canada) 18 150 3
Lentils, red, dried, boiled (Canada) 21 150 4
Lentils, red, dried, boiled (Canada) 31 150 6
Lentils, red, dried, boiled (Canada) 32 150 6
mean of four studies 26±4 150 5
Lima beans, baby, frozen, reheated in microwave oven (York, Canada Packers, Toronto, Canada) 32 150 10
Marrowfat peas
Marrowfat peas, dried, boiled (USA) 31
Marrowfat peas, dried, boiled (Canada) 47±3
mean of two studies 39±8 150 7
Mung beans
Mung bean (Phaseolus areus Roxb), soaked, boiled 20 min (Philippines) 31 150 5
Mung bean, fried (Australia) 53±8
Mung bean, germinated (Australia) 25±4 150 4
Mung bean, pressure cooked (Australia) 42±5 150 7
Peas, dried, boiled (Australia) 22 150 2
Pigeon Pea (Cajanus cajan Linn. Huth.), soaked, boiled 45 min (Philippines) 22 150 4
Pinto beans
Pinto beans, dried, boiled (Canada) 39 150 10
Pinto beans, canned in brine (Lancia-Bravo Foods Ltd., Canada) 45 150 10
Romano beans (Canada) 46 150 8
Soya beans
Soya beans, dried, boiled (Canada) 15±5 150 1
Soya beans, dried, boiled (Australia) 20±3 150 1
mean of two studies 18±3 150 1
Soya beans, canned (Canada) 14±2 150 1
Split peas, yellow, boiled 20 min  (Nupack, Mississauga, Canada) 32 150
MEAL REPLACEMENT PRODUCTS
Hazelnut & Apricot bar (Dietworks, South Yarra, Vic, Australia) 42±7 50 9
L.E.A.N™ products (Usana Inc., Salt Lake City, UT, US)
L.E.A.N Fibergy™ bar, Harvest Oat 45±4 50 13
Nutrimeal™, drink powder, Dutch Chocolate 26±3 250 3
L.E.A.N (Life long) Nutribar™, Peanut Crunch 30±4 40 6
L.E.A.N (Life long) Nutribar™, Chocolate Crunch 32±4 40 6
mean of two Nutri bars 31±1 40 6
Worldwide Sport Nutrition reduced-carbohydrate products (2000 formulations)
 (Worldwide Sport Nutritional Supplements Inc., Largo, FL, US)
Designer chocolate, sugar-free 14±3 35 3
Burn-it™ bars
Chocolate deluxe 29±3 50 2
Peanut butter 23±3 50 1
Pure-protein™ bars
Chewy choc-chip 30±4 80 4
Chocolate deluxe 38±4 80 5
Peanut butter 22±4 80 2
Strawberry shortcake 43±4 80 6
White chocolate mousse 40±4 80 6
Pure-protein™ cookies
Choc-chip cookie dough 25±3 55 3
Coconut 42±5 55 4
Peanut butter 37±7 55 3
Ultra pure-protein™ shakes
Cappuccino 47±6 250 1
Frosty chocolate 37±6 250 1
Strawberry shortcake 42±4 250 1
Vanilla ice cream 32±5 250 1
MIXED MEALS AND CONVENIENCE FOODS
Chicken nuggets, frozen, reheated in microwave oven 5 min (Savings, Grocery Holdings, 46±4 100 7
Tooronga, Vic, Australia)
Fish Fingers (Canada) 38±6 100 7
Greek lentil stew with a bread roll, home made (Australia) 40±5 360 15
Kugel (Polish dish containing egg noodles, sugar, cheese and raisins) (Israel) 65±6 150 31
Lean Cuisine™, French style chicken with rice, reheated (Nestlé, Sydney, NSW, Australia)6 36±6 400 24
Pies, beef, party size (Farmland, Grocery Holdings, Australia) 45±6 100 12
Pizza
Pizza, cheese (Pillsbury Canada Ltd., Toronto, Canada) 60 100 16
Pizza, plain baked dough, served with parmesan cheese and tomato sauce (Italy) 80 100 22
Pizza, Super Supreme, pan (11.4% fat) (Pizza Hut, Sydney, NSW, Australia) 36±6 100 9
Pizza, Super Supreme, thin and crispy (13.2 % fat) (Pizza Hut, Australia) 30±4 100 7
Pizza, Vegetarian Supreme, thin and crispy (7.8 % fat) (Pizza Hut, Australia)6 49±6 100 12
Sausages, NS(Canada) 28±6 100 1
Sirloin chop with mixed vegetables and mashed potato, home made (Australia) 66±12 360 35
Spaghetti bolognaise, home made (Australia) 52±9 360 25
Stirfried vegetables with chicken and boiled white rice, home made (Australia) 73±17 360 55
Sushi
Sushi, salmon (from 'I Love Sushi' chain store, Sydney, NSW, Australia)6 48±8 100 17
Sushi, roasted sea algae, vinegar and rice (Japan) 55 100 20
Mean of two studies 52±4 100 19
White boiled rice, grilled beef burger, cheese, and butter (France) 27 440 14
White boiled rice, grilled beefburger, cheese and butter (France) 22 440 11
Mean in two groups of subjects 25±2 440 13
White bread with toppings
White wheat flour bread, butter, cheese, regular cow's milk and fresh cucumber (Sweden)6 55 200 38
White wheat flour bread, butter, yoghurt and pickled cucumber (Sweden)6 39 200 11
White bread with butter (Canada) 59 100 29
White bread with skim milk cheese (Canada) 55 100 26
White bread with butter and skim milk cheese (Canada) 62 100 23
White/wholemeal wheat bread with peanut butter (Canada) 51 100 23
White/wholemeal wheat bread with peanut butter (Canada) 67 100 30
mean of two studies 59±8 100 26
NUTRITIONAL SUPPORT PRODUCTS
Choicedm™, vanilla (Mead Johnson Nutritionals, Evansville, IN, US) 23±4 237mL 6
Enercal Plus™, made from powder (Wyeth-Ayerst International Inc., Madison, NJ, US) 61±13 237mL 24
Ensure™ (Abbott Australasia, Kurnell, NSW, Australia) 50±8 237mL 19
Ensure™, vanilla (Abbott Australasia) 48±3 250mL 16
Ensure™ bar, chocolate fudge brownie (Abbott Australasia) 43±3 38 8
Ensure Plus™, vanilla (Abbott Australasia) 40±4 237mL 19
Ensure Pudding™, old fashioned vanilla (Abbott Laboratories Inc., Ashland, OH, USA) 36±4 113 9
Glucerna™, vanilla (Abbott Laboratories Inc., USA)6 31±2 237mL 7
Resource Diabetic™, French vanilla (Novartis Nutrition Corp., Young America, MN, USA)6 34±3 237mL 8
Ultracal™ with fiber (Mead Johnson, Evansville, IN, USA) 40 237 mL 12
PASTA and NOODLES
Capellini (Primo Foods Ltd., Toronto, Canada) 45 180 20
Corn pasta, gluten-free (Orgran Natural Foods, Carrum Downs, Vic, Australia) 78±10 180 32
Fettucine, egg  
Fettucine, egg 32±4 180 15
Fettucine, egg (Mother Earth Fine Foods, Rowville, Vic, Australia) 47±6 180 22
mean of two studies 40±8 180 18
Gluten-free pasta, maize starch, boiled 8 min (UK) 54 180 22
Gnocchi, NS  (Latina, Pillsbury Australia Ltd., Mt. Waverley, Vic, Australia) 68±9 180 33
Instant noodles  
Instant 'two-minute' noodles, Maggi® (Nestlé, Sydney, NSW, Australia) 46±5
Instant 'two-minute' noodles, Maggi® (Nestlé, Auckland, New Zealand) 48±8
Instant noodles (Mr Noodle, Vancouver, Canada) 47
mean of three studies 47±1 180 19
Linguine   
Thick, durum wheat, white, fresh (Sweden) 43 180 21
Thick, fresh, durum wheat flour, 0.6% w/w monoglycerides, boiled 8 min (Sweden) 48 180 23
mean of two studies 46±3 180 22
Thin, durum wheat (Sweden) 49 180 23
Thin, fresh, durum wheat flour, 0.6% w/w monoglycerides, boiled 3 min (Sweden) 61 180 29
Thin, fresh, durum wheat with 39% w/w egg, (Sweden) 45 180 18
Thin, fresh, with 0.6% w/w monoglycerides and 30% w/w egg, boiled 3 min (Sweden) 53 180 22
mean of four studies 52±3 180 23
Mung bean noodles  
Lungkow beanthread noodles (National Cereals, Oils & Foodstuffs, Qingdao & Guangdong, China) 26 180 12
Mung bean noodles (Longkou beanthread), dried, boiled (Yantai cereals, China) 39±9 180 18
mean of two studies 33±7
Macaroni  
Macaroni, plain, boiled 5 min (Lancia-Bravo Foods Ltd., Canada) 45 180 22
Macaroni, plain, boiled (Turkey) 48 180 23
mean of two studies 47±2 180 23
Macaroni and Cheese, boxed (Kraft General Foods Canada Inc., Don Mills, Ontario) 64 180 32
Ravioli, durum wheat flour, meat filled, boiled  (Australia) 39±1 180 15
Rice noodles/pasta  
Rice noodles, dried, boiled (Thai World, Bangkok, Thailand) 61±6 180 23
Rice noodles, freshly made, boiled (Sydney, NSW, Australia) 40±4 180 15
Rice pasta, brown, boiled 16 min (Rice Grower's Co-op., Leeton, NSW, Australia) 92±8 180 35
Rice and maize pasta, gluten-free, Ris'O'Mais (Orgran Foods, Carrum Downs, Vic, Australia) 76±6 180 37
Rice vermicelli, Kongmoon (National Cereals, Oils & Foodstuffs, China) 58 180 22
Spaghetti  
Spaghetti, gluten-free, rice and split pea, canned in tomato sauce (Orgran Foods, Australia) 68±9 220 19
Spaghetti, protein enriched, boiled 7 min (Catelli Plus, Catelli Ltd., Montreal, Canada) 27 180 14
Spaghetti, white, boiled 5 min  
Boiled 5 min (Lancia-Bravo Foods Ltd., Canada) 32 180 15
Boiled 5 min (Canada) 34 180 16
Boiled 5 min (Canada) 40 180 19
Boiled 5 min (Middle East) 44 180 21
mean of four studies 38±3 180 18
Spaghetti, white or type NS, boiled 10-15 min  
White, durum wheat, boiled 10 min in salty water (Barilla, Parma, Italy)12 58 180 28
White, durum wheat flour, boiled 12 min  (Starhushålls, Kungsörnen AB, Järna, Sweden) 47 180 23
White, durum wheat flour, 0.6% w/w monoglycerides, boiled 12 min (Sweden) 53 180 25
Boiled 15 min (Lancia-Bravo Foods Ltd., Canada) 32 180 15
Boiled 15 min (Lancia-Bravo Foods Ltd., Canada) 36 180 17
Boiled 15 min (Canada)  41 180 20
White, boiled 15 min in salted water (Unico, Concord, Canada) 44±3 180 21
mean of seven studies 44±3 180 21
Spaghetti, white or type NS, boiled 20 min  
White, durum wheat, boiled 20 min  (Australia) 58±7 180 26
Durum wheat, boiled 20 min (USA) 64±15 180 27
mean of two studies 61±3 180 27
Spaghetti, white, boiled  
White (Denmark) 33 180 16
White, durum wheat (Catelli Ltd, Montreal, Canada) 34 180 16
White (Australia) 38 180 17
White (Canada) 42 180 20
White (Canada) 48 180 23
White (Vetta, Greens Foods, Glendenning, NSW, Australia) 49±7 180 22
White (Canada) 50±8 180 24
mean of seven studies 42±3 180 20
Spaghetti, white, durum wheat semolina (Panzani, Marseilles, France)  
Boiled in 0.7% salted water for 11 min 59±15 180 28
Boiled in 0.7% salted water for 16.5 min 65±15 180 31
Boiled in 0.7% salted water for 22 min 46±10 180 22
mean of three cooking times 57±6 180 27
Spaghetti, wholemeal, boiled  
Wholemeal (USA) 32 180 14
Wholemeal (Canada) 42±4 180 17
mean of two studies 37±5 180 16
Spirali, durum wheat, white, boiled to al denté texture (Vetta, Australia) 43±10 180 19
Split pea and soya pasta shells, gluten-free (Orgran Foods, Australia) 29±6 180 9
Star Pastina, white, boiled 5 minutes (Lancia-Bravo Foods Ltd., Canada) 38 180 18
Tortellini, cheese (Stouffer, Nestlé, Don Mills, Canada) 50 180 10
Udon noodles, plain, reheated 5 min (Fantastic, Windsor Gardens, SA, Australia) 62±8 180 30
Vermicelli, white, boiled (Australia) 35±7 180 16
SNACK FOODS AND CONFECTIONERY  
Chocolate, milk, plain 
Chocolate, milk, plain with sucrose (Belgium) 34±5 50 7
Chocolate, milk (Cadbury's Confectionery, Ringwood, Vic, Australia) 49±6 50 14
Chocolate, milk, Dove® (Mars Confectionery, Ballarat, Vic, Australia) 45±8 50 13
Chocolate, milk (Nestlé, Sydney, NSW, Australia)  42±8 50 13
mean of four studies 43±3 50 12
Chocolate, milk, plain, low-sugar with maltitol (Belgium) 35±16 50 8
Chocolate, white, Milky Bar® (Nestlé, Australia) 44±6 50 13
Corn chips
Corn chips, plain, salted (Doritos™ original, Smith's Snack Food Co., Australia, 1998) 42±4 50 11
Corn chips, plain, salted (Doritos™ original, Smith's Snack Food Co., Australia, 1985) 72 50 18
Nachips™ (Old El Paso Foods Co., Canada) 74 50 21
mean of three studies 63±10 50 17
Fruit Bars
Apricot filled fruit bar (pureed dried apricot filling in wholemeal pastry) 50±8 50 17
(Mother Earth, Auckland, New Zealand)
Heinz Kidz™ Fruit Fingers, banana (HJ Heinz, Malvern, Vic, Australia) 61±11 30 12
Real Fruit Bars, strawberry (Uncle Toby's, Wahgunyah, Vic, Australia) 90±12 30 23
Roll-Ups®, processed fruit snack (Uncle Toby's, Australia) 99±12 30 24
Jelly beans
Jelly beans, assorted colors (Allen's, Nestle, Sydney, NSW, Australia) 80±8
Jelly beans, assorted colors (Savings, Grocery Holdings, Tooronga, Vic, Australia) 76±6
mean of two studies 78±2 30 22
Kudos Whole Grain Bars, chocolate chip (M & M/Mars, Hackettstown, NJ, USA) 62±8 50 20
Life Savers®, peppermint candy (Nestlé, Australia) 70±6 30 21
M & M's®, peanut (Mars Confectionery, Australia) 33±3 30 6
Mars Bar®
Mars Bar® (Mars Confectionery, Australia) 62±8 60 25
Mars Bar® (M&M/Mars, USA) 68±12 60 27
mean of two studies 65±3 60 26
Muesli bar containing dried fruit  (Uncle Toby's, Australia) 61±7 30 13
Nougat, Jijona (La Fama, Spain) 32 30 4
Nutella®, chocolate hazelnut spread (Ferrero Australia, Milson's Point, NSW, Australia) 33±4 20 4
Cashew nuts, salted (Coles Supermarkets, Australia) 22±5 50 3
Peanuts
Peanuts, crushed (South Africa) 7±4 50 0
Peanuts (Canada) 13±6 50 1
Peanuts (Mexico) 23 50 2
mean of three studies 14±8 50 1
Popcorn
Popcorn, plain, cooked in microwave oven (Green's Foods, Glendenning, NSW, Australia) 55±7 20 6
Popcorn, plain, cooked in microwave oven (Uncle Toby's, Australia) 89 20 10
mean of two studies 72±17 20 8
Pop Tarts™, double choc (Kellogg's, Pagewood, NSW, Australia) 70±2 50 24
Potato crisps
Potato crisps, plain, salted (Arnott's, Homebush, NSW, Australia) 57 50 10
Potato crisps, plain, salted (Canada) 51±7 50 12
mean of two studies 54±3 50 11
Pretzels, oven-baked, traditional wheat flavour (Parker's, Smith's Snack Food Co., Australia) 83±9 30 16
Skittles® (Mars Confectionery, Australia) 70±5 50 32
Snack bars
Snack bar, Apple Cinnamon (Con Agra Inc., Omaha, NE, USA) 40±8 50 12
Snack bar, Peanut Butter & Choc-Chip (Con Agra Inc., USA) 37±6 50 10
Snickers Bar®
Snickers Bar® (Mars Confectionery, Australia) 41±5 60 15
Snickers Bar® (M&M/Mars, USA) 68 60 23
mean of two studies 55±14 60 19
Twisties™, cheese-flavoured, extruded snack, rice and corn (Smith's Snackfood Co., Australia) 74±5 50 22
Twix® Cookie Bar, caramel (M&M/Mars, USA) 44±6 60 17
SPORTS BARS
Power Bar® 
Power Bar®, chocolate (Powerfood Inc., Berkeley, CA, USA) 58±5
Power Bar®, chocolate (Powerfood Inc., Berkeley, CA, USA) 53
mean of two studies 56±3 65 24
Ironman PR bar®, chocolate (PR Nutrition, San Diego, CA, USA) 39 65 10
SOUPS
Black Bean (Wil-Pack Foods, San Pedro, CA, USA) 64 250 17
Green Pea, canned (Campbell Soup Co Ltd., Toronto, Canada) 66 250 27
Lentil, canned (Unico, Concord, Canada) 44 250 9
Minestrone, Traditional, Country Ladle™ (Campbell's Soups, Homebush, NSW, Australia) 39±3 250 7
Noodle soup (traditional Turkish soup with stock and noodles) 1 250 0
Split Pea (Wil-Pak Foods, USA) 60 250 16
Tarhana soup (traditional Turkish soup with wheat flour, yoghurt, tomato, peppers) 20
Tomato soup (Canada) 38±9 250 6
SUGARS AND SUGAR ALCOHOLS
Blue Agave cactus nectar, high-fructose
Organic Agave Cactus Nectar, light, 90% fructose (Western Commerce Corp., City of Industry, 11±1 10 1
CA, USA)
Organic Agave Cactus Nectar, light, 97% fructose (Western Commerce Corp., USA) 10±1 10 1
Fructose
25g portion (Sweeten Less, Maximum Nutrition Inc., Toronto, Canada) 11
50g portion (Sweeten Less, Maximum Nutrition Inc., Toronto, Canada) 12
50g portion 20±5
50g portion 21
50g portion (Sigma Chemical Company, St. Louis, MO, USA) 24
25g portion, fed with oats 25
mean of six studies 19±2 10 2
Glucose 
50 g portion (dextrose) 85
25g portion, fed with oats 92
50 g portion 93
50 g portion (dextrose) 96
50 g portion 96
50 g portion (Bio-Health, Dawson Traders Ltd., Toronto, Canada) 96
50 g portion 100
50 g portion (Glucodin™ glucose tablets, Boots, North Ryde, NSW, Australia) 102±9
25 g portion (Bio-Health, Canada) 103
50 g portion (dextrose) 111
100 g portion (Bio-Health, Canada) 114
mean of 11 studies 99±3 10 10
Glucose consumed with American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.)
25 g glucose (Glucodex solution, Rougier Inc., Chambly, Quebec) with 3 g dried ginseng 78 10 8
25 g glucose (Glucodex) 40 min after 3 g dried ginseng5 80
25 g glucose (Glucodex) 40 min before 3 g dried ginseng 76
mean in two groups of subjects 78±2 10 8
Glucose consumed with gum/fiber
46 g Glucose + 15 g apple and orange fiber extract (FITA, Chatswood, NSW, Australia) 79±3 10 6
(total carbohydrate content of drink = 50 g)
50 g Glucose + 14.5 g guar gum 62 10 6
50 g Glucose + 14.5 g oat gum (78% oat ß-glucan) 57 10 6
100 g Glucose + 20 g acacia gum 85 10 9
Glucose consumed with a mixed meal
 30 g glucose with 150 g grilled beefburger, 30 g cheese, 10 g butter 55
(total meal contained 50 g carbohydrate) (France)
30 g glucose with 150 g grilled beefburger, 30 g cheese, 10 g butter 57
(total meal contained 50 g carbohydrate) (France)
mean in two groups of subjects 56±1 250 20
Honey 
Locust honey (Romania) 32 25 7
Yellow box (46% fructose) (Australia) 35±4 25 6
Stringy Bark (52% fructose) (Australia) 44±4 25 9
Red Gum (35% fructose) (Australia) 46±3 25 8
Iron Bark (34% fructose) (Australia) 48±3 25 7
Yapunya (42 % fructose) (Australia) 52±5 25 9
Pure (Capilano Honey Ltd., Richlands, Qld, Australia) 58±6 25 12
Commercial Blend (38% fructose) (WA blend, Capilano Honey Ltd., Australia) 62±3 25 11
Salvation Jane (32% fructose) (Australia) 64±5 25 10
Commercial Blend (28% fructose) (NSW blend, Capilano Honey Ltd., Australia) 72±6 25 9
Honey, NS(Canada) 87±8 25 18
mean of 11 types of honey 55±5 25 10
Lactose 
50 g lactose (Sigma Chemical Company, USA) 43
25 g lactose (BDH, Poole, UK) 48
25 g lactose 48
mean of three studies 46±2 10 5
50 g maltose 105±12 10 11
Sucrose
50 g sucrose (Sigma Chemical Company, USA) 58
50 g sucrose (Redpath Sugars, Toronto, Canada) 58
50 g sucrose 59±10
50 g sucrose 60
25 g sucrose (Redpath Sugars, Canada) 60
25 g sucrose28 64
50 g sucrose 65±9
100 g sucrose (Redpath Sugars, Canada) 65
30 g sucrose 82
25 g sucrose 110±21
mean of 10 studies 68±5 10 7
Sugar alcohols and sugar-replacement compounds
Lactitol
25 g lactitol -1±7
25 g lactitol MC (Danisco sweeteners, Redhill, Surrey, UK) 3±1
mean of two studies 2±3 10 0
Litesse
25 g Litesse II, bulking agent with polydextrose and sorbitol (Danisco Sweeteners, UK) 7±2 10 1
25 g Litesse III ultra, bulking agent with polydextrose and sorbitol (Danisco Sweeteners, UK) 4±2 10 0
Maltitol-based sweeteners or bulking agents
25 g Malbit CR (87% maltitol) (Cerestar, Vilvoorde, Belgium) 30±12 10 3
25 g Maltidex 100 (> 72% maltitol) (Cerestar, Vilvoorde, Belgium 44±11 10 4
25 g Malbit CH (99% maltitol) (Cerestar, Vilvoorde, Belgium) 73±29 10 7
25 g Maltidex 200 (50% maltitol) (Cerestar, Vilvoorde, Belgium) 89±28 10 9
Xylitol
25 g xylitol 7±7
25 g  Xylitol C (Danisco Sweeteners, UK) 8±2
mean of two studies 8±1 10 1
VEGETABLES
Broad beans (Canada) 79±16 80 9
Green peas
Pea, frozen, boiled (Canada) 39 80 3
Pea, frozen, boiled (Canada) 51±6 80 4
Pea, green (Pisum Sativum) (India) 54±14 80 4
mean of three studies 48±5 80 3
Pumpkin (South Africa) 75±9 80 3
Sweet corn
Sweet corn, 'Honey & Pearl' variety (New Zealand) 37±12 80 6
Sweet corn on the cob, boiled 20 min (Sydney, Australia) 48 80 8
Sweet corn (Canada) 59±11 80 11
Sweet corn, boiled (USA) 60 80 11
Sweet corn, boiled (USA) 60 80 11
Sweet corn (South Africa) 62±5 80 11
mean of six studies 54±4 80 9
Sweet corn, whole kernel, diet-pack, Featherweight, canned, drained, heated (USA) 46 80 7
Sweet corn, frozen, heated in microwave (Green Giant, Pillsbury Canada Ltd., Toronto, Canada) 47 80 7
Root vegetables
Beetroot (Canada) 64±16 80 5
Carrots
Carrots, raw (Romania) 16 80 1
Carrots, peeled, boiled (Sydney, NSW, Australia)6 32±5 80 1
Carrots, peeled, boiled (Sydney, NSW, Australia)6 49±2 80 2
Carrots, NS (Canada)  92±20 80 5
mean of four studies 47±16 80 3
Cassava, boiled, with salt (Kenya, Africa) 46 100 12
Parsnips (Canada) 97±19 80 12
Potato 
Baked potato
Ontario, white, baked in skin (Canada) 60 150 18
Baked, Russet Burbank potatoes
Russet, baked without fat (Canada) 56
Russet, baked without fat, 45-60 min (USA) 78
Russet, baked without fat (USA) 94
Russet, baked without fat (USA) 111
mean of four studies 85±12 150 26
Boiled potato
Desiree, peeled, boiled 35 min  (Australia) 101±15 150 17
Nardine (New Zealand) 70±17 150 18
Ontario, white, peeled, cut into cubes, boiled in salted water 15 min (Canada) 58 150 16
Pontiac, peeled, boiled whole for 30 min (Australia) 56 150 14
Pontiac, peeled, boiled 35 min  (Australia) 88±9 150 16
Prince Edward Island, peeled, cubed, boiled in salted water 15 min (Canada) 63 150 11
Sebago, peeled, boiled 35 min  (Australia) 87±7 150 14
Boiled/cooked, white/Type NS
Type NS (Kenya, Africa) 24 150 7
White, cooked (Romania) 41 150 12
White, boiled (Canada) 54 150 15
Type NS, boiled (Australia) 56 150 11
Type NS, boiled in salted water (India) 76 150 26
mean of five studies 50±9 150 14
Type NS, boiled in salted water, refrigerated, reheated (India) 23 150 8
Canned potatoes
Prince Edward Island, canned, microwave heated (Avon, Cobi Foods Inc., Port Williams, Canada)  61 150 11
New, canned, heated in microwave 3 min (Mint Tiny Taters, Edgell's, Cheltenham, Vic, Australia) B23 65±9 150 12
mean of two studies 63±2 150 11
French Fries
French fries, frozen, reheated in microwave (Cavendish Farms, New Annan, Canada) 75 150 22
Instant Mashed potato
Instant (France) 74±12
Instant (Canada) 80±13
Instant (Edgell's Potato Whip, Edgell's, Australia) 86
Instant (Carnation Foods Co. Ltd., Manitoba, Canada) 86
Instant (Canada) 88
Instant mashed potato (Idahoan Foods, Lewisville, ID, USA) 97±6
mean of six studies 85±3 150 17
Mashed potato
Type NS (Canada) 67
Type NS (South Africa) 71±10
Type NS (France) 83
mean of three studies 74±5 150 15
Prince Edward Island, peeled, cubed, boiled 15 min, mashed (Canada) 73 150 13
Pontiac, peeled, cubed, boiled 15 min, mashed (Australia) 91±9 150 18
Microwaved potato 150 12
Pontiac, peeled and microwave on high for 6-7.5 min (Australia) 79±9 150 14
Type NS, microwaved (USA) 82 150 27
New Potato
New (Canada) 47
New (Canada) 54
New (Canada) 70±8
mean of three studies 57±7 150 12
New, unpeeled and boiled 20 min (Australia) 78±12 150 16
Steamed potato
Potato, peeled, steamed 1 h (Solanum Tuberosum) (India)11 65±11 150 18
Potato dumplings (white wheat flour, white potatoes, boiled in salted water (Italy)) 52 150 24
Sweet potato
Sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas (Australia) 44 150 11
Sweet potato, NS (Canada) 48±6 150 16
Sweet potato, peeled, cubed, boiled in salted water 15 min (Canada) 59 150 18
Sweet potato, kumara (New Zealand) 77±12 150 19
Sweet potato, kumara (New Zealand) 78±6 150 20
mean of  five studies 61±7 150 17
Swede
Swede (rutabaga) (Canada) 72±8 150 7
 Tapioca   
 Tapioca boiled with milk (General Mills Canada Inc., Etobicoke, Canada) 81 250 14
Tapioca (Manihot Utilissima), steamed 1 h (India)11 70±10 250 12
Taro
Taro (Colocasia esculenta) peeled, boiled (Australia) 54
Taro, peeled, boiled (New Zealand) 56±12
mean of two studies 55±1 150 4
Yam
Yam, peeled, boiled (New Zealand) 25±4
Yam, peeled, boiled (New Zealand) 35±5
Yam (Canada) 51±12
mean of three studies 37±8 150 13
INDIGENOUS OR TRADITIONAL FOODS OF DIFFERENT ETHNIC GROUPS
AFRICAN
Brown beans (South Africa) 24±8 50 (dry) 6
Cassava, boiled, with salt (Kenya) 46 100 12
Ga kenkey, prepared from fermented cornmeal (Zea mays) (Ghana)31 12±1 150 7
Gari, roasted cassava dough (Manihot utilissima) (Ghana)31 56±3 100 15
Gram dhal (chana dal; South Africa) 5±3 50 (dry) 1
Maize meal porridge, unrefined, maize-meal:water = 1:3 (South Africa) 71±6 50 (dry) 25
Maize meal porridge, refined, maize-meal:water = 1:3 (South Africa) 74±7 50 (dry) 30
Maize meal porridge/gruel (Kenya) 109 50 (dry) 41
M'fino/Morogo, wild greens (South Africa) 68±8 120 34
Millet flour porridge/gruel (Kenya) 107
Unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca) (Ghana)31 40±4 120 (raw) 13
Yam (Dyscoria species) (Ghana)31 66 150 23
ARABIC AND TURKISH
Hoummous (chickpea salad dip) 6±4 30 0
Kibbeh saynieh (made with lamb and burghul) 61±16 120 9
Lebanese bread (white, unleaved), hoummous, falafel and tabbouleh 86±12 120 39
Majadra (Syrian, lentils and rice) 24±5 250 10
Moroccan Couscous (stew of semolina, chickpeas, vegetables) 58±9 250 17
Stuffed Grapevine Leaves (rice and lamb stuffing with tomato sauce) 30±11 100 5
Tarhana soup (wheat flour, yoghurt, tomato, green pepper) 20
Turkish bread, white wheat flour 87 30 15
Turkish bread, whole wheat 49 30 8
Turkish noodle soup 1 250 0
ASIAN 
Broken rice, white, cooked in rice cooker (Lion foods, Bangkok, Thailand) 86±10 150 37
Butter rice, warm white rice and butter (Japan) 79 150 40
Curry rice (Japan) 67 150 41
Curry rice with cheese (Japan) 55 150 27
Glutinous rice, white, cooked in rice cooker (Bangsue Chia Meng Rice Co., Bangkok, Thailand) 98±7 150 31
Glutinous rice NS (Esubi Shokuhin, Japan) 86 150 55
Mean of two studies 92±6 150 44
Glutinous rice ball with cut glutinous cake (mochi) (Japan) 48 75 14
Glutinous rice cake with dried sea algae (Japan) 83 75 32
Glutaminous rice flour, instant, served warm with roasted ground soybean (Japan) 65 100 27
Jasmine rice, white, cooked in rice cooker (Golden World Foods, Bangkok, Thailand) 109±10 150 46
Low-protein white rice with dried sea algae (Japan) 70 150 42
Lungkow beanthread (National Cereals, Oils & Foodstuffs, Qingdao & Guangdong, China) 26 180 12
Lychee, canned in syrup, drained (Narcissus brand, China) 79±8 120 16
Mung bean noodles, dried, boiled (China) 39±9 180 18
Non-glutaminous rice flour, served warm with drink (Yamato Nousan, Japan) 68 100 34
Rice cracker, plain (Sakada, Japan) 91 30 23
Rice gruel with dried algae (Satou Co Ltd., Japan) 81 250 15
Rice noodles, dried, boiled (Thai World, Bangkok, Thailand) 61±6 180 23
Rice noodles, fresh, boiled (Sydney, NSW, Australia) 40±4 180 15
Rice vermicelli, Kongmoon (National Cereals, China) 58 180 22
Roasted rice ball (Satou Co Ltd., Japan) 77 75 21
Salted rice ball (Satou Co Ltd., Japan) 80 75 20
Soba noodles, instant, reheated in hot water, served with soup (Japan) 46 180 22
Stirfried vegetables, chicken and rice, home made (Australia) 73±17 360 55
Sushi, salmon ('I Love Sushi' chain store, Sydney, NSW, Australia)6 48±8 100 17
Sushi, roasted sea algae, vinegar and rice (Japan) 55 100 20
Mean of two studies 52±4 100 19
Udon noodles, fresh, reheated (Fantastic, Windsor Gardens, SA, Australia)6 62±8 180 30
Udon noodles, instant, with sauce and fried bean curd (Nishin Shokuhin, Japan) 48 180 23
Mean of two studies 55±7 180 26
White rice, dried sea algae and milk, eaten together (Japan) 57
White rice, dried sea algae and milk (milk eaten before rice) (Japan) 56
White rice, dried sea algae and milk (milk eaten after rice) (Japan) 55
Mean of three types 56±1 300 26
White rice with dried fish strip (okaka) (Japan) 79 150 40
White rice with fermented soybean (natto) (Japan) 56 150 24
White rice with instant miso soup (soybean paste soup) (Japan) 61 150 29
White rice with low-fat milk (Japan) 69 300 32
White rice and non-sugar yoghurt (yoghurt eaten before rice) (Japan) 59
White rice and non-sugar yoghurt eaten together (Japan) 58
Mean of two types 59±1 150 19
White rice with pickled vinegar and cucumber (pickled food eaten before rice) (Japan) 63
White rice with pickled vinegar and cucumber (pickled food eaten with rice) (Japan) 61
Mean of two types 62±1 150 27
White rice topped with raw egg and soy sauce (Japan) 72 150 26
White rice with roasted ground soybean (Japan) 56 150 29
White rice with salted dried plum (umeboshi) (Japan) 80 150 39
White rice with sea algae rolled in sheet of toasted sea algae (Japan) 77 150 39
ASIAN INDIAN
Amaranth, Amaranthus esculentum, popped, eaten with milk and 97±19 30 18
non-nutritive sweetener
Bajra (Penniseteum typhoideum),eaten as roasted bread made from bajra flour 55±13
Bajra (Penniseteum typhoideum) 49
Bajra (Penniseteum typhoideum) 67
Mean of three studies 57±5 75 (dry) 29
Banana, (Musa sapientum), Nendra variety, unripe, steamed 1 h 11 70±11 120 31
Barley (Hordeum vulgare) 48
Barley (Hordeum vulgare) 37
Mean in two groups of subjects 43±6 150 16
Bengal gram dhal, chickpea (chana dal) 11 150 4
Black gram, (Phaseolus mungo), soaked 12 h, stored moist 24 h, steamed 1 h 11 43±10 150 8
Chapatti
Chapatti, amaranth-wheat (25:75) composite flour, served with bottle gourd and tomato curry 66±10 60 20
Chapatti, amaranth-wheat (50:50) composite flour, served with bottle gourd and tomato curry 76±20 60 23
Chapatti, baisen 27
Chapatti, bajra 67
Chapatti, bajra 49
Mean in two groups of subjects 58±9
Chapatti, barley 37
Chapatti, barley 48
Mean in two groups of subjects 42±5
Chapatti, maize, (Zea mays) 64
Chapatti, maize, (Zea mays) 59
Mean in two groups of subjects 62±3
Chapatti, wheat, served with bottle gourd and tomato curry 66±9 60 21
Chapatti, flour from malted wheat, moth bean (Phaseolus aconitifolius) and 66±9 60 25
bengal gram (Cicer arietinum)
Chapatti, flour made from popped wheat, moth bean and bengal gram 40±8 60 14
Chapatti, flour from roller dried wheat, moth bean and bengal gram 60±9 60 23
Chapatti, wheat flour, thin, with green gram (Phaseolus aureus) dhal 81±4 200 41
Chapatti, wheat flour, thin, with green gram (Phaseolus aureus) dhal 44±3 200 22
Mean in two groups of subjects 63±19 200 32
Cheela (thin savoury pancake made from legume flour batter)
Cheela, bengal gram (Cicer arietinum) 42±1 150 12
Cheela, bengal gram (Cicer arietinum), fermented batter 36±1 150 10
Cheela, green gram (Phaseolus aureus) 45±1 150 12
Cheela, green gram (Phaseolus aureus), fermented batter 38±1 150 10
Dhokla, leavened, fermented, steamed cake; dehusked chickpea and wheat semolina 35±4
Dhokla, leavened, fermented, steamed cake; dehusked chickpea and wheat semolina 31±6
Mean in two groups of subjects 33±2 100 6
Dosai (parboiled and raw rice, soaked, ground, fermented and fried) with chutney 77±3 150 30
Dosai (parboiled and raw rice, soaked, ground, fermented and fried) with chutney 55±2 150 22
Mean in two groups of subjects 66±11 150 26
Green gram, (Phaseolus aureus), soaked 12 h, stored moist 24 h, steamed 1 h 11 38±14 150 6
Green gram, whole with varagu (Paspalum scorbiculatum), pressure cooked 57±6 80 (dry) 29
Green gram dhal with varagu (Paspalum scorbiculatum), pressure cooked 78±12 78 (dry) 39
Horse gram, (Dolichos biflorus) soaked 12 h, stored moist 24 h, steamed 1 h 11 51±11 150 15
Idli (parboiled and raw rice + black dhal, soaked, ground, fermented, steamed) with chutney 77±2 250 40
Idli (parboiled and raw rice + black dhal, soaked, ground, fermented, steamed) with chutney 60±2 250 31
Mean in two groups of subjects 69±9 250 36
Jowar, roasted bread made from Jowar flour (Sorghum vulgare) 77±8 70 (dry) 39
Laddu (popped amaranth, foxtail millet, roasted legume powder, fenugreek seeds) 24±4
in hot sweet syrup
Laddu (popped amaranth, foxtail millet, roasted legume powder, fenugreek seeds) 29±4
in hot sweet syrup
Mean in two groups of subjects 27±3 50 8
Lentil and cauliflower curry with rice (Australia) 60±10 360 31
Millet/Ragi, (Eleucine coracana), dehusked, soaked 12 h, stored moist 24 h, steamed 1 h 68±10 150 23
Millet/Ragi (Eleucine coracana) 84 70 (dry) 42
Millet/Ragi (Eleucine coracana) flour eaten as roasted bread 104±13 70 (dry) 52
mean of two studies 94±10
Pongal (rice and roasted green gram dhal, pressure cooked) 90±3
Pongal (rice and roasted green gram dhal, pressure cooked) 45±2
Mean in two groups of subjects 68±23 250 35
Poori (deep-fried wheat flour dough) with potato palya (mashed potato) 82±2
Poori (deep-fried wheat flour dough) with potato palya (mashed potato) 57±1
Mean in two groups of subjects 70±13 150 28
Rajmah, Phaseolus vulgaris 19 150 6
Rice, (Oryza Sativa) boiled served with bottle gourd and tomato curry 69±15 150 26
Semolina
Semolina (Triticum aestivum), steamed 55±9 67 (dry) 28
Semolina (Triticum aestivum), pre-roasted 76±6 67 (dry) 38
Semolina (Triticum aestivum) with fermented black gram dhal (Phaseolus mungo) 46±12 71 (dry) 23
Semolina (Triticum aestivum) with fermented green gram dhal (Phaseolus aureus) 62±20 71 (dry) 31
Semolina (Triticum aestivum) with fermented bengal gram dhal (Cicer arietum) 54±7 71 (dry) 27
Tapioca (Manihot utilissima), steamed 1h 70±10 250 12
Varagu (Paspalum scorbiculatum), pressure cooked 15lb 12-15 min 68±8 76 (dry) 34
Upittu (roasted semolina and onions, cooked in water) 67±3
Upittu (roasted semolina and onions, cooked in water) 69±4
Mean in two groups of subjects 68±1 150 28
Uppuma kedgeree (millet, legumes, fenugreek seeds; roasted and cooked in water) 18±3
Uppuma kedgeree (millet, legumes, fenugreek seeds; roasted and cooked in water) 19±3
Mean in two groups of subjects 18±1 150 6
AUSTRALIAN ABORIGINAL
Acacia aneura, mulga seed, roasted, wet ground to paste 8 50 1
Acacia coriacea, desert oak,seed bread 46 75 11
Araucaria bidwillii, bunya tree nut, baked min 47 50 7
Bush honey, sugar bag 43 30 11
Castanospermum australe, blackbean seed, sliced, soaked 1 wk, pounded and baked 8 50 1
Dioscorea bulbifera, cheeky yam, peeled, sliced, soaked 2 d, baked 15 min 34 150 12
Macrozamia communis, cycad palm seed, sliced, soaked 1 wk, pounded, baked 40±2 50 10
PACIFIC ISLANDERS
Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) (Australia) 68 120 18
Banana/plantain, green
Green banana, boiled (New Zealand) 38±10 120 8
Sweet Potato
Sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas (Australia) 44 150 11
Sweet potato, kumara (New Zealand) 77±12 150 19
Sweet potato, kumara (New Zealand) 78±6 150 20
mean of three studies 66±11 150 17
Taro
Taro (Colocasia esculenta) peeled, boiled (Australia) 54
Taro, peeled, boiled (New Zealand) 56±12
mean of two studies 55±1 150 4
Yam
Yam, peeled, boiled (New Zealand) 25±4
Yam, peeled, boiled (New Zealand) 35±5
mean of two groups of subjects 30±5 150 13
ISRAELI
Melawach (dough made from white wheat flour and butter, fried) 61±10
Melawach 71±7
mean of two studies 66±5 115 35
Melawach + 15 g locust bean (Ceratonia siliqua) fiber (soluble) 31±6 130 16
Melawach + 15 g maize cob fiber (insoluble) 59±10 130 31
Melawach + 15 g lupin (Lupinus albus) fiber 72±10 130 38
PIMA INDIAN  
Acorns, stewed with venison (Quercus emoryi)6 16±1 100 1
Cactus jam (Stenocereus thurberi) 91 30 18
Corn hominy (Zea mays) 40±5 150 12
Fruit Leather (Stenocereus thurberi) 70 30 17
Lima beans broth (Phaseolus lunatus) 36±3 250 12
Mesquite cakes (Prosopis velutina) 25±3 60 1
Tortilla (Zea mays and Olneya tesota) 38 60 9
White teparies broth (Phaseolus acutifolius) 31±3 250 10
Yellow teparies broth (Phaseolus acutifolius) 29±3 250 8
SOUTH AMERICAN
Arepa, corn bread cake, made with corn flour (Mexico) 72 100 31
Arepa, made from ordinary dehulled dent corn flour (25% amylose) 81 100 35
Arepa, made from dehulled high-amylose (70%) corn flour 44 100 11
Black Beans 30 150 7
Brown Beans 38 150 9
Corn tortilla (Mexican) 52 50 12
Corn tortilla, served with refried mashed pinto beans and tomato sauce (Mexican) 39 100 9
Corn tortilla, fried, with mashed potato, fresh tomato and lettuce (Mexican) 78 100 11
Nopal (prickly pear cactus) 7 100 0
Pinto beans, boiled in salted water 14 150 4
Wheat tortilla (Mexican) 30 50 8
Wheat tortilla served with refried pinto beans and tomato sauce (Mexican) 28 100 5

 

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